A Comparative Study on the Flexural Behaviour of Rubberized and Hybrid Rubberized Reinforced Concrete Beams

Hasan Aied Alasmari, B. H. Abu Bakar, A. T. Noaman


This paper aims to investigate the flexural behaviour of the rubberized and hybrid rubberized reinforced concrete beams. A total of fourteen beams, 150×200 mm in cross-section with 1000 mm in length, were subject to a laboratory test over an effective span of 900 mm. The sand river aggregate was replaced by 10%, 12.5%, and 15% of crumb rubber (volume).   The hybrid structure contained two double layers: 1) rubberized reinforcement concrete at the top layer of the beam and 2) reinforcement concrete at the bottom layer of the concrete beam. The static responses by the flexural test of all the beams were evaluated in terms of their fresh properties, failure patterns, total energy, flexural strength, stiffness, and ultimate deflection, modulus of rupture, strain capacity, and ductility index. The results showed that there were improvements when the hybrid beams were used in most cases such as failure pattern, ultimate load, stiffness, modulus of rupture, and stress. The rubberized concrete beams showed improvements in the strain capacity as illustrated in strain gauges and stress-strain curves, toughness, ultimate deflection, and ductility index. The findings of the study revealed an improved performance with the use of the hybrid beams. This has resulted in the implementation of innovative civil engineering applications in the engineering sustainable structures.


Rubberized Concrete; Hybrid-Rubberized Concrete; Crumb Rubber; Double Layers.


Ozbay, Erdogan, Mohamed Lachemi, and Umur Korkut Sevim. “Compressive Strength, Abrasion Resistance and Energy Absorption Capacity of Rubberized Concretes with and Without Slag.” Materials and Structures 44, no. 7 (December 24, 2010): 1297–1307. doi:10.1617/s11527-010-9701-x.

Oikonomou, N., and S. Mavridou. “The Use of Waste Tyre Rubber in Civil Engineering Works.” Sustainability of Construction Materials (2009): 213–238. doi:10.1533/9781845695842.213.

Najim, K.B., and M.R. Hall. “A Review of the Fresh/hardened Properties and Applications for Plain- (PRC) and Self-Compacting Rubberised Concrete (SCRC).” Construction and Building Materials 24, no. 11 (November 2010): 2043–2051. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.04.056.

Zheng, L., X. Sharon Huo, and Y. Yuan. “Experimental Investigation on Dynamic Properties of Rubberized Concrete.” Construction and Building Materials 22, no. 5 (May 2008): 939–947. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2007.03.005.

Najim, Khalid B., and Matthew R. Hall. “Mechanical and Dynamic Properties of Self-Compacting Crumb Rubber Modified Concrete.” Construction and Building Materials 27, no. 1 (February 2012): 521–530. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.07.013.

Ismail, Mohamed K., and Assem A.A. Hassan. “An Experimental Study on Flexural Behaviour of Large-Scale Concrete Beams Incorporating Crumb Rubber and Steel Fibres.” Engineering Structures 145 (August 2017): 97–108. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2017.05.018.

Mendis, Agampodi S.M., Safat Al-Deen, and Mahmud Ashraf. “Flexural Shear Behaviour of Reinforced Crumbed Rubber Concrete Beam.” Construction and Building Materials 166 (March 2018): 779–791. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.01.150.

R.H. Mohankar, M.D. Pidurkar, P.V Thakre, S.S. Pakhare.”Hybrid fibre reinforced concrete”. International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research (IJSETR) 5, no. 1( January ,2016). http://ijsetr.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/IJSETR-VOL-5-ISSUE-1-1-4.pdf.

Nes, Linn Grepstad, and Jan Arve Øverli. “Structural Behaviour of Layered Beams with Fibre-Reinforced LWAC and Normal Density Concrete.” Materials and Structures 49, no. 1–2 (January 13, 2015): 689–703. doi:10.1617/s11527-015-0530-9.

Oloke, D., Paul Olomolaiye, and David Proverbs. "Demonstrating hybrid concrete construction performance through virtual simulation–a case study approach." In Proceedings of the first SCRI International Symposium. 2004. https://www.irbnet.de/daten/iconda/CIB14582.pdf

Coventry, Kathryn, Alan Richardson, and Eli Diaz. "Impact resistance of concrete–using slit rubber from tyres." (2015): 347-354. http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/23438/2/506 Impact resistance of concrete.pdf

Li, Victor C. “A Simplified Micromechanical Model of Compressive Strength of Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites.” Cement and Concrete Composites 14, no. 2 (January 1992): 131–141. doi:10.1016/0958-9465(92)90006-h.

Al-Tayeb, Mustafa Maher, B. H. Bakar, Hanafi Ismail, and Hazizan Md Akil. "Experimental and Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Hybrid Powder Rubberized-Normal Concrete under Impact Load." Caspian Journal of Applied Sciences Research 1, no. 11 (2012).

Ahmed Tareq Noaman. "Effect crumb rubber aggregate on toughness and impact energy of steel fiber concrete, PhD thesis", (January, 2017).School of Civil Engineering University Sains Malaysia.

Mohd Abqari Bin Abd Wahab, and Badorul Hisham Aku Bakar. "Stress-strain responds of full scale rubberized reinforced concrete beam in bending, Dissertation ". (June, 2016). School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia.

“Practice for Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Laboratory” (n.d.). doi:10.1520/c0192_c0192m-12.

Grinys, Audrius, Henrikas Sivilevičius, Darius Pupeikis, and Ernestas Ivanauskas. “Fracture of Concrete Containing Crumb Rubber.” Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 19, no. 3 (June 14, 2013): 447–455. doi:10.3846/13923730.2013.782335.

Ismail, Mohamed K., and Assem A.A. Hassan. “Shear Behaviour of Large-Scale Rubberized Concrete Beams Reinforced with Steel Fibres.” Construction and Building Materials 140 (June 2017): 43–57. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.02.109

Mohammed, Bashar S., Khandaker M. Anwar Hossain, Jackson Ting Eng Swee, Grace Wong, and M. Abdullahi. “Properties of Crumb Rubber Hollow Concrete Block.” Journal of Cleaner Production 23, no. 1 (March 2012): 57–67. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2011.10.035.

Yi, Seong-Tae, Eun-Ik Yang, and Joong-Cheol Choi. “Effect of Specimen Sizes, Specimen Shapes, and Placement Directions on Compressive Strength of Concrete.” Nuclear Engineering and Design 236, no. 2 (January 2006): 115–127. doi:10.1016/j.nucengdes.2005.08.004.

Noaman, Ahmed Tareq, B.H. Abu Bakar, Hazizan Md. Akil, and A.H. Alani. “Fracture Characteristics of Plain and Steel Fibre Reinforced Rubberized Concrete.” Construction and Building Materials 152 (October 2017): 414–423. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.06.127.

AbdelAleem, Basem H., Mohamed K. Ismail, and Assem A.A. Hassan. “The Combined Effect of Crumb Rubber and Synthetic Fibers on Impact Resistance of Self-Consolidating Concrete.” Construction and Building Materials 162 (February 2018): 816–829. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.12.077.

Zhang, Zhigang, Hui Ma, and Shunzhi Qian. “Investigation on Properties of ECC Incorporating Crumb Rubber of Different Sizes.” Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology 13, no. 5 (2015): 241–251. doi:10.3151/jact.13.241.

Richardson, Alan E., Kathryn A. Coventry, and Gavin Ward. “Freeze/thaw Protection of Concrete with Optimum Rubber Crumb Content.” Journal of Cleaner Production 23, no. 1 (March 2012): 96–103. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2011.10.013

ACI Committee 318 (1996).Building code requirements for structural concrete and commentary (ACI 318-1996).American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, USA. doi: org/10.1061/(asce)1076-0431(1996)2:3(120.3)

Mendis, Agampodi S.M., Safat Al-Deen, and Mahmud Ashraf. “Effect of Rubber Particles on the Flexural Behaviour of Reinforced Crumbed Rubber Concrete Beams.” Construction and Building Materials 154 (November 2017): 644–657. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.07.220.

Wu, Zemei, Caijun Shi, Wen He, and Linmei Wu. “Effects of Steel Fiber Content and Shape on Mechanical Properties of Ultra High Performance Concrete.” Construction and Building Materials 103 (January 2016): 8–14. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.11.028.

Guo, Y.C., J.H. Zhang, G. Chen, G.M. Chen, and Z.H. Xie. “Fracture Behaviors of a New Steel Fiber Reinforced Recycled Aggregate Concrete with Crumb Rubber.” Construction and Building Materials 53 (February 2014): 32–39. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.11.075.

Ismail, Mohamed K., Assem A. A. Hassan, and Amgad A. Hussein. “Structural Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beams Containing Crumb Rubber and Steel Fibres.” Magazine of Concrete Research 69, no. 18 (September 2017): 939–953. doi:10.1680/jmacr.16.00525.

Ismail, Mohamed K., and Assem A. A. Hassan. “Ductility and Cracking Behavior of Reinforced Self-Consolidating Rubberized Concrete Beams.” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 29, no. 1 (January 2017): 04016174. doi:10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0001699.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-2019-03091311


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Hasan Aied Alasmari

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.