A Review and Comprehensive Analysis of the Performance of University – Construction Industry Collaboration

Ziad Al-Gasim, Aslan Amat Senin, Mohd Effandi bin Yusoff


University–construction industry collaboration (UIC) has become an essential part of driving innovation and fostering construction industry growth. Measuring the performance of such collaboration is an emergent field of study that is scattered through the current literature. This study aims to identify the UIC performance indicators advocated by the top-cited references, and map UIC performance indicators in the context of the state of Qatar. The present research evaluated the literature related to measuring the performance of UIC, considering publications in selected scientific databases over the period of 2004 – 2020. The publications were obtained through a search of the Science Direct, Emerald Insight, Scopus, Web of Science, Springer Link, SAGE, Research Gate, and Taylor & Francis Online databases. Keywords used in searching for publications included university, construction industry, business, cooperation, collaboration, relation, performance, and measurement. The findings were discussed and confirmed in the context of Qatar’s education and innovation ecosystem through semi-structured interviews with two renowned scholars who are involved in UIC. The study revealed that both universities and the construction industry are increasingly focused on measuring the performance of collaboration through specific performance indicators. The results show that both universities and the construction industry share some interests when it comes to four key performance indicators. These performance indicators are (1) the number of registered patents, (2) the number of patent applications, (3) the number of innovations (process/marketing/product/organisational), and (4) the number of publications. This study contributes to a general understanding of measuring UIC performance and defining trends in this research field. It also highlights research limitations and provides an arena for future research in the field.


Doi: 10.28991/cej-2021-03091688

Full Text: PDF


University; Construction, Industry; Business; Cooperation; Qatar; Collaboration; Relations.


Alaloul, Wesam Salah, M.S. Liew, Noor Amila Wan Abdullah Zawawi, and Ickx Baldwin Kennedy. “Industrial Revolution 4.0 in the Construction Industry: Challenges and Opportunities for Stakeholders.” Ain Shams Engineering Journal 11, no. 1 (March 2020): 225–230. doi:10.1016/j.asej.2019.08.010.

Rodionov, Dmitrii, and Daria Velichenkova. “Relation between Russian Universities and Regional Innovation Development.” Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity 6, no. 4 (October 16, 2020): 118. doi:10.3390/joitmc6040118.

Davey, Baaken, Galan Muros and Meerman, “The State of European University-Business Cooperation,” Part of the DG Education and Culture Study on the cooperation between higher education institutions and public and private organisations in Europe 140(2011).

Galán-Muros, Victoria, Peter van der Sijde, Peter Groenewegen, and Thomas Baaken. “Nurture over Nature: How Do European Universities Support Their Collaboration with Business?” The Journal of Technology Transfer 42, no. 1 (October 22, 2015): 184–205. doi:10.1007/s10961-015-9451-6.

Ishengoma, Esther, and Terje I. Vaaland. “Can University-Industry Linkages Stimulate Student Employability?” Education + Training 58, no. 1 (January 11, 2016): 18–44. doi:10.1108/et-11-2014-0137.

Berbegal-Mirabent, Jasmina, José Luís Sánchez García, and D. Enrique Ribeiro-Soriano. “University–industry Partnerships for the Provision of R&D Services.” Journal of Business Research 68, no. 7 (July 2015): 1407–1413. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.01.023.

D’Este, Pablo, and Markus Perkmann. “Why Do Academics Engage with Industry? The Entrepreneurial University and Individual Motivations.” The Journal of Technology Transfer 36, no. 3 (February 24, 2010): 316–339. doi:10.1007/s10961-010-9153-z.

Etzkowitz, Henry. “Innovation Lodestar: The Entrepreneurial University in a Stellar Knowledge Firmament.” Technological Forecasting and Social Change 123 (October 2017): 122–129. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2016.04.026.

Hall, “University-industry research partnerships in the United States,” (2004).

Mascarenhas, Carla, João J Ferreira, and Carla Marques. “University–industry Cooperation: A Systematic Literature Review and Research Agenda.” Science and Public Policy 45, no. 5 (January 29, 2018): 708–718. doi:10.1093/scipol/scy003.

Foundation, “Qatar Foundation Annual Report 2014-15,” in Book Qatar Foundation Annual Report 2014-15, ed.^eds. Editor (City: Qatar Foundation, 2015).

Jackson, “What is an innovation ecosystem,” National Science Foundation 1, no. 2 (2011).

Agrawal, Ajay K. “University-to-Industry Knowledge Transfer: Literature Review and Unanswered Questions.” International Journal of Management Reviews 3, no. 4 (December 2001): 285–302. doi:10.1111/1468-2370.00069.

Geuna, Aldo, and Alessandro Muscio. “The Governance of University Knowledge Transfer: A Critical Review of the Literature.” Minerva 47, no. 1 (March 2009): 93–114. doi:10.1007/s11024-009-9118-2.

Rothaermel, F. T., S. D. Agung, and L. Jiang. “University Entrepreneurship: a Taxonomy of the Literature.” Industrial and Corporate Change 16, no. 4 (July 11, 2007): 691–791. doi:10.1093/icc/dtm023.

Perkmann, Markus, Valentina Tartari, Maureen McKelvey, Erkko Autio, Anders Broström, Pablo D’Este, Riccardo Fini, et al. “Academic Engagement and Commercialisation: A Review of the Literature on University–industry Relations.” Research Policy 42, no. 2 (March 2013): 423–442. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2012.09.007.

Barraket, J., and M. Loosemore. “Co-Creating Social Value through Cross-Sector Collaboration Between Social Enterprises and the Construction Industry.” Construction Management and Economics 36, no. 7 (December 21, 2017): 394–408. doi:10.1080/01446193.2017.1416152.

Warsen, Rianne, José Nederhand, Erik Hans Klijn, Sanne Grotenbreg, and Joop Koppenjan. “What Makes Public-Private Partnerships Work? Survey Research into the Outcomes and the Quality of Cooperation in PPPs.” Public Management Review 20, no. 8 (February 1, 2018): 1165–1185. doi:10.1080/14719037.2018.1428415.

Saunders, Mark NK, and Philip Lewis. “Doing research in business & management: An essential guide to planning your project.” Pearson, (2012).

Hue Kyung L, Hyun Duk Y, Si Jeoung K, Yoon Kyo S. Factors affecting university–industry cooperation performance. Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management [Internet]. Emerald; 2016 Jul 4;7(2):233–54. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/jstpm-08-2015-0029

Rajalo, Sigrid, and Maaja Vadi. “University-Industry Innovation Collaboration: Reconceptualization.” Technovation 62–63 (April 2017): 42–54. doi:10.1016/j.technovation.2017.04.003.

Albahari, Alberto, Salvador Pérez-Canto, Andrés Barge-Gil, and Aurelia Modrego. “Technology Parks Versus Science Parks: Does the University Make the Difference?” Technological Forecasting and Social Change 116 (March 2017): 13–28. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2016.11.012.

Muscio, Quaglione and Scarpinato, “The effects of universities' proximity to industrial districts on university–industry collaboration,” China Economic Review 23, no. 3 (2012). doi.org/10.1016/j.chieco.2011.07.001

Bstieler, Ludwig, Martin Hemmert, and Gloria Barczak. “The Changing Bases of Mutual Trust Formation in Inter-Organisational Relationships: A Dyadic Study of University-Industry Research Collaborations.” Journal of Business Research 74 (May 2017): 47–54. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2017.01.006.

Anatan, Lina. “Conceptual Issues in University to Industry Knowledge Transfer Studies: A Literature Review.” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 211 (November 2015): 711–717. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.11.090.

Villani, Elisa, Einar Rasmussen, and Rosa Grimaldi. “How Intermediary Organisations Facilitate University–industry Technology Transfer: A Proximity Approach.” Technological Forecasting and Social Change 114 (January 2017): 86–102. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2016.06.004.

Scandura, Alessandra. “University–industry Collaboration and Firms’ R&D Effort.” Research Policy 45, no. 9 (November 2016): 1907–1922. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2016.06.009.

Striukova, Ludmila, and Thierry Rayna. “University-Industry Knowledge Exchange.” Edited by Dr Carl Abbott and Professor James A. Powell. European Journal of Innovation Management 18, no. 4 (October 12, 2015): 471–492. doi:10.1108/ejim-10-2013-0098.

Huang, Mu-Hsuan, and Dar-Zen Chen. “How Can Academic Innovation Performance in University–industry Collaboration Be Improved?” Technological Forecasting and Social Change 123 (October 2017): 210–215. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2016.03.024.

Corral de Zubielqui, Graciela, Janice Jones, Pi-Shen Seet, and Noel Lindsay. “Knowledge Transfer Between Actors in the Innovation System: a Study of Higher Education Institutions (HEIS) and SMES.” Edited by Dr Chiara Cantù, Dr Daniela Corsaro and Prof Annalisa Tunisini. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing 30, no. 3/4 (May 1, 2015): 436–458. doi:10.1108/jbim-07-2013-0152.

Gulbrandsen, Magnus, and Taran Thune. “The Effects of Non-Academic Work Experience on External Interaction and Research Performance.” The Journal of Technology Transfer 42, no. 4 (January 25, 2017): 795–813. doi:10.1007/s10961-017-9556-1.

Azagra-Caro, Joaquín M., David Barberá-Tomás, Mónica Edwards-Schachter, and Elena M. Tur. “Dynamic Interactions Between University-Industry Knowledge Transfer Channels: A Case Study of the Most Highly Cited Academic Patent.” Research Policy 46, no. 2 (March 2017): 463–474. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2016.11.011.

Clauss, Thomas, and Tobias Kesting. “How Businesses Should Govern Knowledge-Intensive Collaborations with Universities: An Empirical Investigation of University Professors.” Industrial Marketing Management 62 (April 2017): 185–198. doi:10.1016/j.indmarman.2016.09.001.

Goel, Rajeev K., Devrim Göktepe-Hultén, and Christoph Grimpe. “Who Instigates University–industry Collaborations? University Scientists Versus Firm Employees.” Small Business Economics 48, no. 3 (August 23, 2016): 503–524. doi:10.1007/s11187-016-9795-9.

Lam, Alice. “From ‘Ivory Tower Traditionalists’ to ‘Entrepreneurial Scientists’?” Social Studies of Science 40, no. 2 (February 18, 2010): 307–340. doi:10.1177/0306312709349963.

OECD, Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental Development, ed.^eds. Editor (Paris: OECD, 2002. “Frascati Manual 2002” (May 21, 2007). doi:10.1787/9789955682684-lt.

Seppo, Marge, and Alo Lilles. "Indicators measuring university-industry cooperation." Discussions on Estonian Economic Policy 20, no. 1 (2012): 204.

Albats, Ekaterina, Marcel Bogers, and Daria Podmetina. “Companies’ Human Capital for University Partnerships: A Micro-Foundational Perspective.” Technological Forecasting and Social Change 157 (August 2020): 120085. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2020.120085.

Van Looy, Bart, Marina Ranga, Julie Callaert, Koenraad Debackere, and Edwin Zimmermann. “Combining Entrepreneurial and Scientific Performance in Academia: Towards a Compounded and Reciprocal Matthew-Effect?” Research Policy 33, no. 3 (April 2004): 425–441. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2003.09.004.

Castro, Igor Junqueira de, Marcelo Seido Nagano, and Suzana Xavier Ribeiro. “Elements That Influence Knowledge Sharing in the University-Industry-Government Collaboration.” Revista de Gestão 26, no. 1 (January 21, 2019): 61–72. doi:10.1108/rege-04-2018-0061.

Chen, Kaihua, Yi Zhang, Guilong Zhu, and Rongping Mu. “Do Research Institutes Benefit from Their Network Positions in Research Collaboration Networks with Industries Or/and Universities?” Technovation 94–95 (June 2020): 102002. doi:10.1016/j.technovation.2017.10.005.

Liu, Anita MM, Otto Xinning Liang, Martin Tuuli, and Isabelle Chan. “Role of Government Funding in Fostering Collaboration Between Knowledge-Based Organisations: Evidence from the Solar PV Industry in China.” Energy Exploration & Exploitation 36, no. 3 (November 20, 2017): 509–534. doi:10.1177/0144598717742968.

Zhang, Ruixue, Zeyu Wang, Yuyan Tang, and Yuanxin Zhang. “Collaborative Innovation for Sustainable Construction: The Case of an Industrial Construction Project Network.” IEEE Access 8 (2020): 41403–41417. doi:10.1109/access.2020.2976563.

Aldieri, Luigi, Maxim Kotsemir, and Concetto Paolo Vinci. “The Impact of Research Collaboration on Academic Performance: An Empirical Analysis for Some European Countries.” Socio-Economic Planning Sciences 62 (June 2018): 13–30. doi:10.1016/j.seps.2017.05.003.

Azagra-Caro, Joaquín M., Robert J.W. Tijssen, Elena M. Tur, and Alfredo Yegros-Yegros. “University-Industry Scientific Production and the Great Recession.” Technological Forecasting and Social Change 139 (February 2019): 210–220. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2018.10.025.

Li, Rui, and Weihua Fang. “University-Industry-Government Relations of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) Universities: The Perspective of the Mutual Information.” Edited by Dorothy Porter. PLOS ONE 14, no. 2 (February 8, 2019): e0211939. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0211939.

Gibson, Elizabeth, Tugrul U. Daim, and Marina Dabic. “Evaluating University Industry Collaborative Research Centers.” Technological Forecasting and Social Change 146 (September 2019): 181–202. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2019.05.014.

Tseng, Fan-Chuan, Mu-Hsuan Huang, and Dar-Zen Chen. “Factors of University–industry Collaboration Affecting University Innovation Performance.” The Journal of Technology Transfer 45, no. 2 (February 10, 2018): 560–577. doi:10.1007/s10961-018-9656-6.

Garcia, Renato, V. Araújo, S. Mascarini, E. G. Santos, and A. R. Costa. “How Long-Term University-Industry Collaboration Shapes the Academic Productivity of Research Groups.” Innovation 22, no. 1 (June 27, 2019): 56–70. doi:10.1080/14479338.2019.1632711.

Tijssen, Robert, Wouter Klippe, and Alfredo Yegros. “Localisation, Regionalisation and Globalisation of University‐business Research Co‐operation in the United Kingdom.” Papers in Regional Science 99, no. 5 (April 17, 2020): 1215–1236. doi:10.1111/pirs.12531.

Cheng, Hua, Zhiying Zhang, Qing Huang, and Zhongju Liao. “The Effect of University–industry Collaboration Policy on Universities’ Knowledge Innovation and Achievements Transformation: Based on Innovation Chain.” The Journal of Technology Transfer 45, no. 2 (February 8, 2018): 522–543. doi:10.1007/s10961-018-9653-9.

Chen, Guanghua, Guoliang Yang, Feng He, and Kaihua Chen. “Exploring the Effect of Political Borders on University-Industry Collaborative Research Performance: Evidence from China’s Guangdong Province.” Technovation 82–83 (April 2019): 58–69. doi:10.1016/j.technovation.2019.02.001.

Fischer, Bruno Brandão, Paola Rücker Schaeffer, Nicholas S. Vonortas, and Sérgio Queiroz. “Quality Comes First: University-Industry Collaboration as a Source of Academic Entrepreneurship in a Developing Country.” The Journal of Technology Transfer 43, no. 2 (March 4, 2017): 263–284. doi:10.1007/s10961-017-9568-x.

Rossi, Federica, and Ainurul Rosli. “Indicators of University–industry Knowledge Transfer Performance and Their Implications for Universities: Evidence from the United Kingdom.” Studies in Higher Education 40, no. 10 (June 10, 2014): 1970–1991. doi:10.1080/03075079.2014.914914.

Hu, Yi-Fen, Jiang-Liang Hou, and Chen-Fu Chien. “A UNISON Framework for Knowledge Management of University–industry Collaboration and an Illustration.” Computers & Industrial Engineering 129 (March 2019): 31–43. doi:10.1016/j.cie.2018.12.072.

Lyu, Lachang, Weiping Wu, Haipeng Hu, and Ru Huang. “An Evolving Regional Innovation Network: Collaboration among Industry, University, and Research Institution in China’s First Technology Hub.” The Journal of Technology Transfer 44, no. 3 (September 12, 2017): 659–680. doi:10.1007/s10961-017-9620-x.

Fischer, Bruno Brandão, Paola Rücker Schaeffer, and Nicholas S. Vonortas. “Evolution of University-Industry Collaboration in Brazil from a Technology Upgrading Perspective.” Technological Forecasting and Social Change 145 (August 2019): 330–340. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2018.05.001.

Sun, Yutao, Chen Zhang, and Robert A. W. Kok. “The Role of Research Outcome Quality in the Relationship between University Research Collaboration and Technology Transfer: Empirical Results from China.” Scientometrics 122, no. 2 (December 21, 2019): 1003–1026. doi:10.1007/s11192-019-03330-6.

Albats, Ekaterina, Irina Fiegenbaum, and James A. Cunningham. “A Micro Level Study of University Industry Collaborative Lifecycle Key Performance Indicators.” The Journal of Technology Transfer 43, no. 2 (January 27, 2017): 389–431. doi:10.1007/s10961-017-9555-2.

Hue Kyung, Lee, Youm Hyun Duk, Kim Si Jeoung, and Suh Yoon Kyo. “Factors Affecting University–industry Cooperation Performance.” Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management 7, no. 2 (July 4, 2016): 233–254. doi:10.1108/jstpm-08-2015-0029.

Kotiranta, Annu, Antti Tahvanainen, Anne Kovalainen, and Seppo Poutanen. “Forms and Varieties of Research and Industry Collaboration across Disciplines.” Heliyon 6, no. 3 (March 2020): e03404. doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03404.

Bellini, Emilio, Giuseppe Piroli, and Luca Pennacchio. “Collaborative Know-How and Trust in University–industry Collaborations: Empirical Evidence from ICT Firms.” The Journal of Technology Transfer 44, no. 6 (February 9, 2018): 1939–1963. doi:10.1007/s10961-018-9655-7.

Mosayebi, Alireza, Shahryar Ghorbani, and Behzad Masoomi. “Applying Fuzzy Delphi and Best-Worst Method for Identifying and Prioritising Key Factors Affecting on University-Industry Collaboration.” Decision Science Letters (2020): 107–118. doi:10.5267/j.dsl.2019.7.001.

Dalmarco, Gustavo, Willem Hulsink, and Guilherme V. Blois. “Creating Entrepreneurial Universities in an Emerging Economy: Evidence from Brazil.” Technological Forecasting and Social Change 135 (October 2018): 99–111. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2018.04.015.

Son, Hosung, Yanghon Chung, and Heeju Hwang. “Do Technology Entrepreneurship and External Relationships Always Promote Technology Transfer? Evidence from Korean Public Research Organizations.” Technovation 82–83 (April 2019): 1–15. doi:10.1016/j.technovation.2019.02.005.

Babić, Verica, and Slađana Savović. “University Characteristics as the Success Factor of Academic Spin-Offs.” Zbornik Ekonomskog Fakulteta u Zagrebu 16, no. 1 (June 2018): 113–127. doi:10.22598/zefzg.2018.1.113.

Hansen, Irina-Emily, Ola Jon Mork, and Torgeir Welo. “Knowledge Management of University-Industry Collaboration in the Learning Economy.” 2017 2nd International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Applications (ICKEA) (October 2017). doi:10.1109/ickea.2017.8169924.

Raesfeld, Ariane von, Peter Geurts, Mark Jansen, Johannes Boshuizen, and Regina Luttge. “Influence of Partner Diversity on Collaborative Public R&D Project Outcomes: A Study of Application and Commercialization of Nanotechnologies in the Netherlands.” Technovation 32, no. 3–4 (March 2012): 227–233. doi:10.1016/j.technovation.2011.12.001.

Messeni Petruzzelli, Antonio, and Gianluca Murgia. “University–Industry Collaborations and International Knowledge Spillovers: a Joint-Patent Investigation.” The Journal of Technology Transfer 45, no. 4 (March 15, 2019): 958–983. doi:10.1007/s10961-019-09723-2.

Goel, Rajeev K., and Devrim Göktepe-Hultén. “What Drives Academic Patentees to Bypass TTOs? Evidence from a Large Public Research Organisation.” The Journal of Technology Transfer 43, no. 1 (June 22, 2017): 240–258. doi:10.1007/s10961-017-9595-7.

Perkmann, Markus, Andy Neely, and Kathryn Walsh. “How Should Firms Evaluate Success in University-Industry Alliances? A Performance Measurement System.” R&D Management 41, no. 2 (February 22, 2011): 202–216. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9310.2011.00637.x.

Giannopoulou, Eleni, Pierre-Jean Barlatier, and Julien Pénin. “Same but Different? Research and Technology Organizations, Universities and the Innovation Activities of Firms.” Research Policy 48, no. 1 (February 2019): 223–233. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2018.08.008.

Al-Ashaab, Ahmed, Myrna Flores, Athanasia Doultsinou, and Andrea Magyar. “A Balanced Scorecard for Measuring the Impact of Industry–university Collaboration.” Production Planning & Control 22, no. 5–6 (April 8, 2011): 554–570. doi:10.1080/09537287.2010.536626.

Hewitt-Dundas, Nola, Areti Gkypali, and Stephen Roper. “Does Learning from Prior Collaboration Help Firms to overcome the ‘two-Worlds’ Paradox in University-Business Collaboration?” Research Policy 48, no. 5 (June 2019): 1310–1322. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2019.01.016.

Shi, Xing, Yanrui Wu, and Dahai Fu. “Does University-Industry Collaboration Improve Innovation Efficiency? Evidence from Chinese Firms⋄.” Economic Modelling 86 (March 2020): 39–53. doi:10.1016/j.econmod.2019.05.004.

Xie, Xuemei, and Hongwei Wang. “How Can Open Innovation Ecosystem Modes Push Product Innovation Forward? An fsQCA Analysis.” Journal of Business Research 108 (January 2020): 29–41. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.10.011.

Hernández-Trasobares, Alejandro, and Josefina L. Murillo-Luna. “The Effect of Triple Helix Cooperation on Business Innovation: The Case of Spain.” Technological Forecasting and Social Change 161 (December 2020): 120296. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2020.120296.

Teixeira, Sérgio Jesus, Pedro Mota Veiga, and Cristina Abreu Fernandes. “The Knowledge Transfer and Cooperation between Universities and Enterprises.” Knowledge Management Research & Practice 17, no. 4 (January 8, 2019): 449–460. doi:10.1080/14778238.2018.1561166.

Abdulai, Abdul-Fatahi, Lyndon Murphy, and Brychan Thomas. “University Knowledge Transfer and Innovation Performance in Firms: The Ghanaian Experience.” International Journal of Innovation Management 24, no. 03 (April 23, 2019): 2050023. doi:10.1142/s1363919620500231.

Arant, William, Dirk Fornahl, Nils Grashof, Kolja Hesse, and Cathrin Söllner. “University-Industry collaborations—The Key to Radical Innovations?” Review of Regional Research 39, no. 2 (August 14, 2019): 119–141. doi:10.1007/s10037-019-00133-3.

Chen, Yangyang, Edward J. Podolski, and Madhu Veeraraghavan. “National Culture and Corporate Innovation.” Pacific-Basin Finance Journal 43 (June 2017): 173–187. doi:10.1016/j.pacfin.2017.04.006.

Hou, Bojun, Jin Hong, Hongying Wang, and Chongyang Zhou. “Academia-Industry Collaboration, Government Funding and Innovation Efficiency in Chinese Industrial Enterprises.” Technology Analysis & Strategic Management 31, no. 6 (November 13, 2018): 692–706. doi:10.1080/09537325.2018.1543868.

Zhang, Yi, Kaihua Chen, and Xiaolan Fu. “Scientific Effects of Triple Helix Interactions Among Research Institutes, Industries and Universities.” Technovation 86–87 (August 2019): 33–47. doi:10.1016/j.technovation.2019.05.003.

Kohus, Zsolt, Zoltan Baracskai, and Katalin Czako, “The Relationship between University-Industry Co-Publication Outputs,” Economic and Social Development: Book of Proceedings (2020): 109-122.

David, Firmansyah, and Peter van der Sijde. “University–Business Co-Operation in Indonesian Higher Education for Innovation.” New Technology-Based Firms in the New Millennium (June 15, 2015): 187–200. doi:10.1108/s1876-022820150000011017.

Lašáková, Anna, Ľubica Bajzíková, and Indra Dedze. “Barriers and Drivers of Innovation in Higher Education: Case Study-Based Evidence across Ten European Universities.” International Journal of Educational Development 55 (July 2017): 69–79. doi:10.1016/j.ijedudev.2017.06.002.

Ahmed, Fethi B. Jomaa. "Challenges of the knowledge society: Exploring the case of Qatar." Global Economic Observer 6, no. 1 (2018): 39-54.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-2021-03091688


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Ziad Al-Gsim, Aslan Amat Senin, Mohd Effandi bin Yusoff

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.