Lean Construction Practice on Toll Road Project Improvement: A Case Study in Developing Country

Mohammed Ali Berawi, Mustika Sari, Perdana Miraj, . Mardiansyah, Gunawan Saroji, Bambang Susantono


Construction is a crucial industry that drives a nation's economic growth, yet it often faces inherent challenges related to productivity and waste generation. Lean Construction (LC) has emerged as a promising approach to address these challenges. However, despite its success in various construction projects, some gaps in the practical adoption of LC hinder its widespread practitioner uptake. Therefore, to close the gap, the objective of this study is threefold: identify waste factors of construction activities, determine suitable lean tools for project performance improvement, and assess the impacts of the implementation of lean tools on project completion time and costs. A toll road project in Indonesia was investigated as the case study. A combined research method was employed by administering a questionnaire survey to pertinent project participants, conducting in-depth interviews, and analyzing relevant documents to achieve these objectives. This study discovered 15 non-value-added (NVA) activities that can be eliminated to enhance overall project performance. Most of these activities can be accommodated using coordination and collaboration, while some require a more comprehensive approach, including standardization, the Five S, crash programs, and overlapping techniques. Implementing lean tools resulted in a 19.17% reduction in project completion time, although it contributed to a 5.33% decrease in organizational profit compared to traditional approaches. The findings of this study hold the potential to benefit those facing similar issues, not only in emerging countries but also in developed economies grappling with similar contexts.


Doi: 10.28991/CEJ-2023-09-12-016

Full Text: PDF


Infrastructure; Toll Road; Project Performance; Lean Construction; Construction Waste.


Xing, W., Hao, J. L., Qian, L., Tam, V. W. Y., & Sikora, K. S. (2021). Implementing lean construction techniques and management methods in Chinese projects: A case study in Suzhou, China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 286. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.124944.

Singh, S., & Kumar, K. (2020). Review of literature of lean construction and lean tools using systematic literature review technique (2008–2018). Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 11(2), 465–471. doi:10.1016/j.asej.2019.08.012.

United Nations Environment Programme. (2022). 2022 Global Status Report for Buildings and Construction: Towards a Zero‑emission, Efficient and Resilient Buildings and Construction Sector. United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations, New York, United States.

Berawi, M. A., Kim, A. A., Naomi, F., Basten, V., Miraj, P., Medal, L. A., & Sari, M. (2023). Designing a smart integrated workspace to improve building energy efficiency: an Indonesian case study. International Journal of Construction Management, 23(3), 410–422. doi:10.1080/15623599.2021.1882747.

Crawford, R. H., Mathur, D., & Gerritsen, R. (2017). Barriers to Improving the Environmental Performance of Construction Waste Management in Remote Communities. Procedia Engineering, 196, 830–837. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2017.08.014.

Fitri, L., Hatmoko, J. U. D., & Hermawan, F. (2019). Managing Construction Waste in Developed Countries: Lessons Learned for Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 366, 012016. doi:10.1088/1755-1315/366/1/012016.

Sarhan, J. G., Xia, B., Fawzia, S., & Karim, A. (2017). Lean construction implementation in the Saudi Arabian construction industry. Construction Economics and Building, 17(1), 46–69. doi:10.5130/AJCEB.v17i1.5098.

Heigermoser, D., García de Soto, B., Abbott, E. L. S., & Chua, D. K. H. (2019). BIM-based Last Planner System tool for improving construction project management. Automation in Construction, 104, 246–254. doi:10.1016/j.autcon.2019.03.019.

Francis, A., & Thomas, A. (2020). Exploring the relationship between lean construction and environmental sustainability: A review of existing literature to decipher broader dimensions. Journal of Cleaner Production, 252. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.119913.

Jørgensen, B., & Emmitt, S. (2008). Lost in transition: The transfer of lean manufacturing to construction. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 15(4), 383–398. doi:10.1108/09699980810886874.

Maraqa, M. J., Sacks, R., & Spatari, S. (2023). Strategies for reducing construction waste using lean principles. Resources, Conservation and Recycling Advances, 19(200180), 2023. doi:10.1016/j.rcradv.2023.200180.

Wu, X., Zhao, W., Ma, T., & Yang, Z. (2019). Improving the efficiency of highway construction project management using lean management. Sustainability (Switzerland), 11(13), 3646. doi:10.3390/su11133646.

Pedo, B., Tezel, A., Koskela, L., Whitelock-Wainwright, A., Lenagan, D., & Nguyen, Q. A. (2021). Lean Contributions to BIM Processes: The Case of Clash Management in Highways Design. Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction, Lima, Peru, 116–125. doi:10.24928/2021/0164.

Uddin, M. M. (2020). Lean Construction Quality Assurance Opportunities in Highway Construction. Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction, California, United States. doi:10.24928/2020/0013.

Nguyen, P., Lines, B., & Tran, D. (2020). Exploring the Adaption of Lean Principles to Highway Construction. Construction Research Congress 2020. doi:10.1061/9780784482889.031.

Mohammadi, A., Igwe, C., Amador-Jimenez, L., & Nasiri, F. (2020). Applying lean construction principles in road maintenance planning and scheduling. International Journal of Construction Management, 1–11. doi:10.1080/15623599.2020.1788758.

Aslam, M., Gao, Z., & Smith, G. (2020). Exploring factors for implementing lean construction for rapid initial successes in construction. Journal of Cleaner Production, 277. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.123295.

Green, S. D., & May, S. C. (2005). Lean construction: Arenas of enactment, models of diffusion and the meaning of “leanness.” Building Research and Information, 33(6), 498–511. doi:10.1080/09613210500285106.

Tiamaz, Y., & Souissi, N. (2019). A domain model for capturing knowledge of the lean approach. Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, 12(1), 83–96. doi:10.3926/jiem.2660.

Arlbjørn, J. S., & Freytag, P. V. (2013). Evidence of lean: A review of international peer-reviewed journal articles. European Business Review, 25(2), 174–205. doi:10.1108/09555341311302675.

Miraj, P., Berawi, M. A., & Utami, S. R. (2021). Economic feasibility of green office building: combining life cycle cost analysis and cost–benefit evaluation. Building Research and Information, 49(6), 624–638. doi:10.1080/09613218.2021.1896354.

Fitriani, H., Ajayi, S., & Kim, S. (2023). Analysis of the Underlying Causes of Waste Generation in Indonesia’s Construction Industry. Sustainability (Switzerland), 15(1), 409. doi:10.3390/su15010409.

Koskela, L. (1993). Lean Production in Construction. Automation and Robotics in Construction X: Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction (ISARC), 47-54. doi:10.22260/isarc1993/0007.

Alves, T. D. C. L., Milberg, C., & Walsh, K. D. (2012). Exploring lean construction practice, research, and education. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 19(5), 512–525. doi:10.1108/09699981211259595.

Erol, H., Dikmen, I., & Birgonul, M. T. (2017). Measuring the impact of lean construction practices on project duration and variability: A simulation-based study on residential buildings. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 23(2), 241–251. doi:10.3846/13923730.2015.1068846.

Bamana, F., Lehoux, N., & Cloutier, C. (2019). Simulation of a Construction Project: Assessing Impact of Just-in-Time and Lean Principles. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 145(5), 05019005. doi:10.1061/(asce)co.1943-7862.0001654.

Ballard, G., & Kim, Y. (2007). Implementing lean on capital projects. Proceedings of the 15th IGLC conference, 6-12 July, Michigan, United States.

Martinez, E., Reid, C. K., & Tommelein, I. D. (2019). Lean construction for affordable housing: a case study in Latin America. Construction Innovation, 19(4), 570–593. doi:10.1108/CI-02-2019-0015.

Ahmed, S., & Sobuz, M. H. R. (2020). Challenges of implementing lean construction in the construction industry in Bangladesh. Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, 9(2), 174–207. doi:10.1108/SASBE-02-2019-0018.

Evans, M., Farrell, P., Mashali, A., & Zewein, W. (2021). Critical success factors for adopting building information modelling (BIM) and lean construction practices on construction mega-projects: a Delphi survey. Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, 19(2), 537–556. doi:10.1108/JEDT-04-2020-0146.

Liker, J. K., & Lamb, T. (2002). What is lean ship construction and repair? Journal of Ship Production, 18(3), 121–142. doi:10.5957/jsp.2002.18.3.121.

Ballard, G., & Howell, G. A. (2003). Lean project management. Building Research and Information, 31(2), 119–133. doi:10.1080/09613210301997.

Babalola, O., Ibem, E. O., & Ezema, I. C. (2019). Implementation of lean practices in the construction industry: A systematic review. Building and Environment, 148, 34–43. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.10.051.

Ramaswamy, K. P., & Kalidindi, S. N. (2009). Waste in Indian building construction projects. Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference of the IGLC, 15-17 July, 2009, Taipei, Taiwan.

Womack, J. P., Jones, D. T., & Roos, D. (1992). The machine that changed the world. Business Horizons, 35(3), 81–82. doi:10.1016/0007-6813(92)90074-J.

Bajjou, M. S., & Chafi, A. (2020). Identifying and Managing Critical Waste Factors for Lean Construction Projects. EMJ - Engineering Management Journal, 32(1), 2–13. doi:10.1080/10429247.2019.1656479.

Issa, U. H., & Alqurashi, M. (2020). A model for evaluating causes of wastes and lean implementation in construction projects. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 26(4), 331–342. doi:10.3846/jcem.2020.12323.

Sugimori, Y., Kusunoki, K., Cho, F., & Uchikawa, S. (1977). Toyota production system and kanban system materialization of just-in-time and respect-for-human system. International Journal of Production Research, 15(6), 553–564. doi:10.1080/00207547708943149.

Womack, J. P., & Jones, D. T. (1997). Lean Thinking—Banish Waste and Create Wealth in your Corporation. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 48(11), 1148–1148. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jors.2600967.

Liker, J. K. (2004). The 14 principles of the Toyota way: an executive summary of the culture behind TPS. The Toyota way, 14(1), 35-41.

Bossink, B. A. G., & Brouwers, H. J. H. (1996). Construction Waste: Quantification and Source Evaluation. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 122(1), 55–60. doi:10.1061/(asce)0733-9364(1996)122:1(55).

Purushothaman, M. babu, Seadon, J., & Moore, D. (2020). Waste reduction using lean tools in a multicultural environment. Journal of Cleaner Production, 265. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.121681.

de Souza, R. V. B., & Carpinetti, L. C. R. (2014). A FMEA-based approach to prioritize waste reduction in lean implementation. International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, 31(4), 346–366. doi:10.1108/IJQRM-05-2012-0058.

Berawi, M. A., Miraj, P., Saroji, G., & Sari, M. (2020). Impact of rail transit station proximity to commercial property prices: utilizing big data in urban real estate. Journal of Big Data, 7(1), 71. doi:10.1186/s40537-020-00348-z.

Ali, S. A. A., Arun, C., & Krishnamurthy, K. (2021). Re-defining flow in construction process for facilitating the identification and quantification of generic overruns existing in construction industry today. International Journal of Construction Management, 21(2), 113–130. doi:10.1080/15623599.2018.1511236.

Rivera, F. M. La, Vielma, J. C., Herrera, R. F., & Gallardo, E. (2021). Waste identification in the operation of structural engineering companies (SEC) according to lean management. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(8), 4249. doi:10.3390/su13084249.

de Magalhães, R. F., Danilevicz, Â. D. M. F., & Saurin, T. A. (2017). Reducing construction waste: A study of urban infrastructure projects. Waste management, 67, 265-277. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2017.05.025.

Klein, L. L., Tonetto, M. S., Avila, L. V., & Moreira, R. (2021). Management of lean waste in a public higher education institution. Journal of Cleaner Production, 286. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.125386.

Sarhan, J., Xia, B., Fawzia, S., Karim, A., & Olanipekun, A. (2018). Barriers to implementing lean construction practices in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) construction industry. Construction Innovation, 18(2), 246–272. doi:10.1108/CI-04-2017-0033.

Tortorella, G. L., Narayanamurthy, G., & Thurer, M. (2021). Identifying pathways to a high-performing lean automation implementation: An empirical study in the manufacturing industry. International Journal of Production Economics, 231. doi:10.1016/j.ijpe.2020.107918.

Koseoglu, O., & Nurtan-Gunes, E. T. (2018). Mobile BIM implementation and lean interaction on construction site: A case study of a complex airport project. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 25(10), 1298–1321. doi:10.1108/ECAM-08-2017-0188.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/CEJ-2023-09-12-016


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2024 Mustika Sari

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.