Experimental Evaluation of Eco-friendly Light Weight Concrete with Optimal Level of Rice Husk Ash Replacement

Seyed Alireza Zareei, Farshad Ameri, Nasrollah Bahrami, Farzan Dorostkar


Concrete is a versatile and cost-effective building material whose properties are influenced by age, curing condition, and installation. A number of studies deduced that there should be an association of benefits encouraged the use of partial replacements of cement seems to improve strength and durability properties of concrete. This paper presents a framework for feasibility assessment and determination of optimum percentage of rice husk ash (RHA) replacement. Five mix plans with RHA replacing ratio of 0-20% and constant micro- silica value by 10% were prepared. Tests results indicated that compressive strength increased by 20% with an increase in RHA up to 15%. The similar trend was observed in mix designs made of cement replaced by RHA up to 20% in water absorption coefficient measurement. Higher chloride ion penetration was observed in mix designs containing 25% RHA compared to that of conventional concrete. Mixes developed a slightly higher impact resistance than the control mix.


Rice Husk Ash; Micro-Silica; Lightweight Concrete; Compressive and Durability Properties.


Rashad, Alaa M. "A preliminary study on the effect of fine aggregate replacement with metakaolin on strength and abrasion resistance of concrete." Construction and Building Materials 44 (2013): 487-495.

V. M. Malhotra, “Role of supplementary cementing materials and superplasticizers in reducing greenhouse gas emissions,” in Proceedings of ICFRC International Conference on Fiber Composites, High-Performance Concrete, and Smart Materials, 2004, pp. 489–499.

G. C. Cordeiro, R. D. Toledo Filho, L. M. Tavares, and E. de M. R. Fairbairn, “Ultrafine grinding of sugar cane bagasse ash for application as pozzolanic admixture in concrete,” Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 110–115, 2009.

Mehta, P. Kumar, and Helena Meryman. "Tools for reducing carbon emissions due to cement consumption." Structure 1, no. 1 (2009): 11-15.

Claudiu, A. C. I. U., and Nicoleta COBIRZAN. "Use of Agricultural Products and Waste in the Building Materials Industry." Proenvironment Promediu 6, no. 15 (2013).

A. M.-A. Bilba K, “Silane treatment of bagasse fiber for reinforcement of cementitious composites,” Compos A Appl Sci Manuf, vol. 39, pp. 1488–95, 2008.

A. Tiwari, S. Singh, and R. Nagar, “Feasibility assessment for partial replacement of fine aggregate to attain cleaner production perspective in concrete: A review,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 135. pp. 490–507, 2016.

Shahnaz, Akhtar, Phool Shahzadi, Adan Mujahid, Muhammad Saadet Khan, Ammarah Abbass, and Ammarah Kanwal. "Utilization of bio materials as pozzolanic material for partial replacement of cement." (2016): 85-91.

Sharif, Burhan, Rafia Firdous, and Muhammad Akram Tahir. "Development of Local Bagasse Ash as Pozzolanic Material for Use in Concrete." Pakistan Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences (2016): 39-45.

Alp, I., H. Deveci, Y. H. Süngün, A. O. Yilmaz, A. Kesimal, and E. Yilmaz. "Pozzolanic characteristics of a natural raw material for use in blended cements." Iranian Journal of Science and Technology 33, no. B4 (2009): 291.

Giddel, M. R., and A. P. Jivan. "Waste to wealth, potential of rice husk in India a literature review." In International conference on cleaner technologies and environmental Management PEC, Pondicherry, India, vol. 2, pp. 4-6. 2007.

Kumar, S., P. Sangwan, R. Mor V. Dhankhar, and S. Bidra. "Utilization of rice husk and their ash: A review." Res. J. Chem. Env. Sci 1, no. 5 (2013): 126-129.

A. Z. Hansen H., “Ecobuild – Environmentally friendly construction and building,.” Project co - ordinator Horsens Polytechnic, Denmark, 2001.

Ismail, Muhammad Shoaib, and A. M. Waliuddin. "Effect of rice husk ash on high strength concrete." Construction and Building Materials 10, no. 7 (1996): 521-526.

J. Martirena Hernández, B. Middendorf, M. Gehrke, and H. Budelmann, “Use of wastes of the sugar industry as pozzolana in lime-pozzolana binders: study of the reaction,” Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 1525–1536, 1998.

Mu’Azu, Mohammed Abdullahi. "Influence of compactive effort on Bagasse ash with cement treated lateritic soil." Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies 10, no. 1 (2007): 79-92.

K. Kartini, “Rice Husk Ash- Pozzolanic Material for Sustainability,” Int. J. Appl. Sci. Technol., vol. 1, no. 6, 2011.

Gupta, Deepak, and Arvind Kumar. "Strength Characterization of Cement Stabilized and Fiber Reinforced Clay–Pond Ash Mixes." International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering 2, no. 4 (2016): 32..

J. H. and P. D. D. Bui, “Particle Size Effect on the Strength of Rice Husk Ash Blended Gap-Graded Port- land Cement Concrete,” Cem. Concr. Compos., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 357–366, 2005.

J. Sousa Coutinho, “The combined benefits of CPF and RHA in improving the durability of concrete structures,” Cem. Concr. Compos., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 51–59, 2003.

P. Chindaprasirt, T. Chareerat, and V. Sirivivatnanon, “Workability and strength of coarse high calcium fly ash geopolymer,” Cem. Concr. Compos., vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 224–229, 2007.

Gupta, Deepak, and Arvind Kumar. "Performance evaluation of cement-stabilized pond ash-rice husk ash-clay mixture as a highway construction material." Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 9, no. 1 (2017): 159-169.

S. K. Antiohos, V. G. Papadakis, and S. Tsimas, “Rice husk ash (RHA) effectiveness in cement and concrete as a function of reactive silica and fineness,” Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 61–62, pp. 20–27, 2014.

R. K. Sandhu and R. Siddique, “Influence of rice husk ash (RHA) on the properties of self-compacting concrete: A review,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 153. pp. 751–764, 2017.

Z. H. Ahsan, Mohammad Badrul, “Use of Rice Husk Ash (RHA) as a Sustainable Cementitious Material for Concrete Construction,” in In International Congress and Exhibition" Sustainable Civil Infrastructures: Innovative Infrastructure Geotechnology, 2017, pp. 197–210.

He, Zhihai, Chunxiang Qian, Shigui Du, Man Huang, and Menglu Xia. "Nanoindentation characteristics of cement paste and interfacial transition zone in mortar with rice husk ash." Journal of Wuhan University of Technology-Mater. Sci. Ed. 32, no. 2 (2017): 417-421.

V. Ajay and C. Rajeev, “Effect of Micro Silica on The Strength of Concrete with Ordinary Portland Cement,” Research Journal of Engineering Sciences . ISSN Sept. Res. J. Engineering Sci, vol. 1, no. 3. pp. 2278–9472, 2012.

N. P. Singhania, “rice husk ash,” Inst. Concr. Technol., vol. 55, 2004.

S. Ramesh and S. Kavitha, “Experimental study on the behaviour of cement concrete with rice husk ash (RHA),” Int. J. Eng. Appl. Sci., vol. 6, no. 2, 2015.

G. A. A. A. Ramezanianpour, M. Mahdi khani, “The Effect of Rice Husk Ash on Mechanical Properties and Durability of Sustainable Concretes,” Int. J. Civ. Eng., vol. 7, no. 2, 2009.

S. S. for C. F. A. and R. or C. N. P. for U. in Concrete, “24ASTM C618. 2004,” in Annual Book of ASTM Standards., 2004.

K. H. M. Kah Yen FOONG, U. Johnson ALENGARAM†‡, Mohd Zamin JUMAAT, “Enhancement of the mechanical properties of lightweight oil palm shell concrete using rice husk ash and manufactured sand,” J. Zhejiang Univ. A (Applied Phys. Eng., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 59–69, 2016.

L. A. Bui, C. Chen, C. Hwang, and W. Wu, “Effect of silica forms in rice husk ash on the properties of concrete,” Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 252–258, 2012.

H. S. Müller and M. Haist, “New Types of High Performance Concretes – Potentials for Innovations in Concrete Construction,” in Innovative Materials and Techniques in Concrete Construction, 2012, pp. 43–58.

A. C642-13, “Standard Test Method for Density, Absorption, and Voids in Hardened Concrete. American Society for Testing and Materials.” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2013.

A. S. C39/C39M-14, “Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Test Specimens.” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014.

A. S. T. M. Norma, “C496/C496M-11, Standard test method for splitting tensile strength of cylindrical concrete specimens.” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, pp. 469–90, 2004.

A. G544, “design considrations for steel fiber reinforced concrete,” ACI Struct. J., vol. 85, no. 5, pp. 536–580, 1988.

S. T. M. for E. I. of C. A. to R. C. I. Penetration, “ASTM C1202 - 17.” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2011.

U. S. ASTM Publication, “ASTM Standard C1202, “Standard Test Method for Electrical Indication of Concrete’s Ability to Resist Chloride Ion Penetration.” 2007.

U. S. ASTM Publication, “ASTM C330- Specification for Lightweight Aggregates for Structural Concret.” 2009.

T. F. H. A.L.G. Gastaldini , G.C. Isaia, A.P. Saciloto, F. Missau, “Influence of curing time on the chloride penetration resistance of concrete containing rice husk ash: A technical and economical feasibility study,” Cem. Concr. Compos., vol. 32, pp. 783–793, 2010.

K. T. K. Ganesan a, K. Rajagopal a, “Rice husk ash blended cement: Assessment of optimal level of replacement for strength and permeability properties of concrete,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 22, pp. 1675–1683, 2008.

C. J. W. Chalee a, T. Sasakul b, P. Suwanmaneechot c, “Utilization of rice husk–bark ash to improve the corrosion resistance of concrete under 5-year exposure in a marine environment,” Cem. Concr. Compos., vol. 37, pp. 47–53, 2013.

R. Jones, “The ultrasonic testing of concrete,” Ultrasonics, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 78–82, 1963.

S. Kumar, handbook of material testing. Indian railways institute of civil engineering, 2006.

Sharma, Narendra Kumar, Praveen Kumar, Sanjeev Kumar, Blessen Skariah Thomas, and Ramesh Chandra Gupta. "Properties of concrete containing polished granite waste as partial substitution of coarse aggregate." Construction and Building Materials 151 (2017): 158-163.

P.-C. Aïtcin, “Concreto de Alto Desempenho,” CONCRETO ALTO DESEMPENHO EM Ambient. COM BAIXAS Temp., p. 667, 2000.

R. Polat, M. M. Yadollahi, A. E. Sagsoz, and S. Arasan, “The Correlation between Aggregate Shape and Compressive Strength of Concrete,” Int. J. Struct. Civ. Eng. Res., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 62–80, 2013.

Chopra, Divya, and Rafat Siddique. "Strength, permeability and microstructure of self-compacting concrete containing rice husk ash." Biosystems Engineering 130 (2015): 72-80.

A. P. & D. Van Gemert, “Evaluation Of Accelerated Chloride Ion Diffusion Test And Applicability Of Fick’s Second Law,” 9DBMC, pp. 1–10, 2002.

A. Michel, B. J. Pease, A. Peterová, M. R. Geiker, H. Stang, and A. E. A. Thybo, “Penetration of corrosion products and corrosion-induced cracking in reinforced cementitious materials: Experimental investigations and numerical simulations,” Cem. Concr. Compos., vol. 47, pp. 75–86, 2014.

L. Hussein and L. Amleh, “Structural behavior of ultra-high performance fiber reinforced concrete-normal strength concrete or high strength concrete composite members,” Constr. Build. Mater, vol. 93, pp. 1105–1116, 2015.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-030930


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Seyed Alireza Zareei, Farshad Ameri, Nasrollah Bahrami, Farzan Dorostkar

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.