Forensic Evaluation of Compacted Soils using RAMCODES
Unexpected failure of compacted soils was explained using design curves of the Rational Methodology for Compacted Geomaterial’s Density and Strength Analysis (RAMCODES). Forensic geotechnical evaluation, applied to a compacted soil used at a construction site, demonstrated that the bearing capacity of the soil was influenced by the water content and the dry unit weight. At the construction site, the only criterion used for quality control of the compacted soil was the minimum compaction percentage; the maximum dry unit weight (achieved using the standard Proctor test) was used when the soil was compacted with light equipment, and the maximum dry unit weight (achieved using the modified Proctor test) was used when it was compacted with heavy equipment. After changing water content conditions, the soil compacted with heavy equipment and the soil compacted with light equipment exhibited changes in bearing capacity; the soil compacted with light equipment showed a failure, whereas the soil compacted with heavy equipment did not. The causes of failure were evaluated from samples of soil analyzed in the laboratory; analysis was performed using design curves obtained through a factorial experimental design. Our analysis revealed that the criterion of minimum compaction percentage was not adequate to determine the actual mechanical performance of the soil. We sought to determine why the soil compacted with light equipment did not satisfy the bearing capacity expected after compaction, and what other actions should performed at a construction site to avoid failure of soils compacted with light equipment.
Daniel, David E., and Benson, Craig H. “Water content-density criteria for compacted soil liners.” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering. American Society of Civil Engineers 116 (12) (December 1990): 1811–1830. doi: 10.1061/(asce)0733-9410(1990)116:12(1811).
Davis, Tim. “Geotechnical testing, observation, and documentation” (2008). doi: 10.1061/9780784409497.ch04.
Ganju, E., Kim H, Prezzi M., Salgado, R. and Siddiki, NZ. “Quality assurance and quality control of subgrade compaction using the dynamic cone penetrometer.” International Journal of Pavement Engineering Civil Engineering Journal 19 (2016): 966–975. doi: 10.1080/10298436.2016.1227664.
Lommler, John C. “Geotechnical Problem Solving” (March 9, 2012). doi:10.1002/9781119968429.
Fang, Hsai-Yang, ed. “Foundation Engineering Handbook” (1991). doi:10.1007/978-1-4757-5271-7.
Herrmann, Jonathan G., and Elsbury, Bill R. “Influential factors in soil liner construction for waste disposal facilities.” Geotechnical practice for waste disposal’87 (1987) American Society of Civil Engineers: 522–536.
Montejo-Fonseca, Alfonso. “Ingeniería de pavimentos para carreteras Tomo I” (2002). Ediciones y publicaciones Universidad Católica de Colombia.
Wu, Jason Y., Kaiming Huang, and Munira Sungkar. “Remediation of Slope Failure by Compacted Soil-Cement Fill.” Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities 31, no. 4 (August 2017): 04017022. doi:10.1061/(asce)cf.1943-5509.0000998.
ASTM D698-12e2. “Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12,400 ft-lbf/ft3(600 kN-m/m3))”. ASTM International (2012). doi: 10.1520/d0698-07.
ASTM D1557-09. “Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))”. ASTM International (2009). doi: 10.1520/d1557-09.
COVENIN 2000-1:2009. “Norma Técnica Fondonorma. Carreteras, Autopistas y Vías Urbanas. Especificaciones y Mediciones”. Fondo para la Normalización y Certificación de la Calidad, FONDONORMA (2009). Venezuela.
Sánchez-Leal, F.J., Garnica Anguas, P., Gómez López, J.A., and Pérez García, N. “RAMCODES: Metodología racional para el análisis de densificación y resistencia de geomateriales compactados”. Publicación Técnica 200 (2002).
Sánchez-Leal, F.J. “Interpretation of CBR-test results under the shear-strength concept of unsaturated soil mechanics.” Proceedings of the third international conference on unsaturated soils (USAT 2002) (2002).
Sánchez-Leal, F.J., and de Campos, Jucá. “Correlation of maximum density and optimum water content with index properties” (2002).
TAYLOR, DONALD W. “Fundamentals of Soil Mechanics.” Soil Science 66, no. 2 (August 1948): 161. doi:10.1097/00010694-194808000-00008.
Proctor, R. “Fundamental principles of soil compaction.” Engineering News-Record 111 (13) (1933).
Marinho, F A M, O M Oliveira, H Adem, and S Vanapalli. “Shear Strength Behavior of Compacted Unsaturated Residual Soil.” International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 7, no. 1 (January 2013): 1–9. doi:10.1179/1938636212z.00000000011.
Zhang, T., Cui, Y., Lamas-Lopez, F., Calon, N. and Costa, D’Aguiar. “Compacted soil behaviour through changes of density, suction, and stiffness of soils with remoulding water content.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal 55 (February 2017): 182–190. doi: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0628.
Sánchez-Leal, Freddy J. “Gradation Chart for Asphalt Mixes: Development.” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 19, no. 2 (February 2007): 185–197. doi:10.1061/(asce)0899-1561(2007)19:2(185).
Sánchez-Leal, Freddy J., Paul Garnica Anguas, Michael Larreal, and Diana B. López Valdés. “Polyvoids: Analytical Tool for Superpave HMA Design.” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 23, no. 8 (August 2011): 1129–1137. doi:10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0000275.
ASTM D6913. “Standard test methods for particle-size distribution (gradation) of soils using sieve”. ASTM international (2017). doi: 10.1520/d6913_d6913m-17.
ASTM D4318. “Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils”. ASTM International (2010). doi: 10.1520/d4318-10.
ASTM D854 -06e1. “Standard Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer”. ASTM International (2006). doi: 10.1520/d0854-06e01
ASTM D3282-15. “Standard practice for classification of soils and soil-aggregate mixtures for highway construction purposes”. ASTM International (2004). doi: 10.1520/d3282-93r04e01
ASTM D2216-10. “Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass”. ASTM International (2015). doi: 10.1520/d2216-10.
ASTM D1556. “Standard Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by the Sand-Cone Method”. ASTM International (2015). doi: 10.1520/d1556_d1556m-15.
Jiju, Antony. “Design of experiments for engineers and scientists, Second Edition” (2014). doi: 10.1016/b978-0-08-099417-8.00002-x.
ASTM D1883-99. “Standard Test Method for California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of Laboratory-Compacted Soils”. ASTM International (2016). doi: 10.1520/d1883-16.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2018 Romer D. Oyola-Guzmán, Rómulo Oyola-Morales
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.