Assessment of Change Orders Attributes in Preconstruction and Construction Phase

Ali Raza Khoso, Jam Shahzaib Khan, Rizwan Ullah Faiz, Muhammad Akram Akhund


Construction projects are very complex in nature. Each activity involves multiple varying tasks. Construction industry is the main source of economic growth. When change order occur performance of projects momentously affected.  Change orders often have a serious impact on the quality, time and cost. Eventually it results in disputes, delays, and dissatisfactions among stakeholders and ultimately results in failures of projects. In past several studies have been done to evaluate the causes of change order and its effects. Attempts have been made to quantify these impacts by many researchers, but the aim of this study is to identify the causes of change order in two different phases i.e. preconstruction and construction stage. Views were taken from relevant experts over included factors after in-depth literature review from past researches. A questionnaire was made and floated with different construction players from clients, consultants and contractors side. The data was analyzed by SPSS using average index technique. The analysis of data showed that, Mistakes in specifications, Mistakes in design and Lack of experience in selecting construction team by client are the most critical factors during preconstruction phase. Whereas, Design modification by owner, change in scope at later stage and Delays in payment by client are most critical factors of construction phase, responsible for change order. The extensive discussion of these factors revealed various parameters related to Pakistan construction. This study will enable the clients, consultants and contractors to be aware of factors which causes changes in orders and their consequences on project completion. By the identification of possible reasons, the right decisions can be made to mark the project successful.


Change Orders; Client; Preconstruction; Construction; Pakistan.


Haynes F. Construction statistics : Number 19, 2018 edition 2018:1–23.

Farooqui, Rizwan, and Syed Ahmed. "Assessment of Pakistani construction industry–current performance and the way forward." Journal for the Advancement of Performance Information & Value 1, no. 1 (2008).

Keane, Patrick, Begum Sertyesilisik, and Andrew David Ross. “Variations and Change Orders on Construction Projects.” Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction 2, no. 2 (May 2010): 89–96. doi:10.1061/(asce)la.1943-4170.0000016.

Shalaby, Yasmin, and Ahmed Khalafallah. “Change Order Disputes: Technical Causes and Negative Effects in Kuwait.” Construction Research Congress 2018 (March 29, 2018). doi:10.1061/9780784481271.031.

Love, P.E.D., G.D. Holt, L.Y. Shen, H. Li, and Z. Irani. “Using Systems Dynamics to Better Understand Change and Rework in Construction Project Management Systems.” International Journal of Project Management 20, no. 6 (August 2002): 425–436. doi:10.1016/s0263-7863(01)00039-4.

Assaf, Sadi A., and Sadiq Al-Hejji. “Causes of Delay in Large Construction Projects.” International Journal of Project Management 24, no. 4 (May 2006): 349–357. doi:10.1016/j.ijproman.2005.11.010.

Senouci, Ahmed, Ahmed Alsarraj, Murat Gunduz, and Neil Eldin. “Analysis of Change Orders in Qatari Construction Projects.” International Journal of Construction Management 17, no. 4 (October 14, 2016): 280–292. doi:10.1080/15623599.2016.1211973.

Chen, Jieh-Haur, and S.C. Hsu. “Hybrid ANN-CBR Model for Disputed Change Orders in Construction Projects.” Automation in Construction 17, no. 1 (November 2007): 56–64. doi:10.1016/j.autcon.2007.03.003.

Hao, Q.; Shen, W.; Neelamkavil, J.; Thomas R. Change management in construction projects, Proceedings of the CIB W78 25th International Conference on Information Technology: Improving the Management of Construction Projects Through IT Adopation, Santiago, Chile; 2008, p. 387–96.

Hanna, Awad S., Richard Camlic, Pehr A. Peterson, and Erik V. Nordheim. "Quantitative definition of projects impacted by change orders." Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 128, no. 1 (2002): 57-64. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2002)128:1(57).

Ibn-Homaid, Naif T., Adel I. Eldosouky, and Mohammed A. Al-Ghamdi. "Change orders in Saudi linear construction projects." Emirates Journal for Engineering Research 16, no. 1 (2011): 33-42.

Alnuaimi, Ali S., Ramzi A. Taha, Mohammed Al Mohsin, and Ali S. Al-Harthi. “Causes, Effects, Benefits, and Remedies of Change Orders on Public Construction Projects in Oman.” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 136, no. 5 (May 2010): 615–622. doi:10.1061/(asce)co.1943-7862.0000154.

Pourrostam, Towhid, Amiruddin Ismail, and Mahmood Mansournejad. “Identification and Evaluation of Causes and Effects of Change Orders in Building Construction Projects.” Applied Mechanics and Materials 94–96 (September 2011): 2261–2264. doi:10.4028/

Iyagba, R. O., and I. A. Ijaola. "A comparative study of causes of change orders in public construction project in Nigeria and Oman." Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences 3, no. 5 (2012): 495-501.

Alaryan, Alia. "Causes and effects of change orders on construction projects in Kuwait." International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications 4, no. 7 (2014): 01-08.

Desai, J. N., J. Pitroda, and J. J. Bhavasar. "Analysis of factor affecting change order in construction industry using RII method." Scientific Journal Impact Factor (2015): 344-348.

Assbeihat, Jamal M., and Ghaleb J. Sweis. "Factors affecting change orders in public construction projects." International Journal of Applied 5, no. 6 (2015).

Gokulkarthi, M., and K. S. Gowrishankar. "A Study On Impacts Of Change Order In Construction Projects." International Journal of Science and Engineering Research 3 (2015).

Staiti, Mujahed, Mohammed Othman, and A. A. Jaaron. "Impact of Change Orders in Construction Sector in The West Bank." In International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management. 2016.

Alves T da CL, Shah N. Construction Research Congress 2018. Proceeding Constr Res Congr 2018 2018:148–57.

Desai, N., A. Pitroda, and J. Bhavsar. "A review of change order and assessing causes affecting change order in construction." International Academic Research for Multidisciplinary 2, no. 12 (2015): 152-162.

Shrestha, Pramen P., and Haileab Zeleke. “Effect of Change Orders on Cost and Schedule Overruns of School Building Renovation Projects.” Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction 10, no. 4 (November 2018): 04518018. doi:10.1061/(asce)la.1943-4170.0000271.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-2019-03091273


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Rizwan Ullah Faiz

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.