Effect of Compactive Efforts on Strength of Laterites Stabilized with Sawdust Ash

Olumide Moses Ogundipe, Jonathan Segun Adekanmi, Olufunke Olanike Akinkurolere, Peter Olu Ale


This study investigates the effects of different compactive efforts on the strength of laterites stabilized with sawdust ash (SDA). Laterites in the categories of A-7-5 and A-7-6 were considered because they are not suitable in the natural states as subgrade materials. The geotechnical properties of the laterites in their natural states were determined. The sawdust was burnt and sieved through 600micron. The sawdust ash (at 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%) was added to the laterites and the atterberg limits were determined, while the California bearing ratio and Unconfined compression test were determined using three compactive efforts (596, 1192 and 2682KN-m/m3).It was generally observed that the maximum dry densities of the natural and stabilised laterites increase with increase in the compactive efforts, while the optimum moisture contents reduce. The plasticity indices of the laterites increased with the addition of SDA. The optimum values of the MDDs (2006 and 1878 kg/m3) were observed at 4% and 6% SDA of 2682 kN-m/m3 compactive effort for samples A and B, respectively. The soaked and unsoaked CBR values of the soils at natural state are 4.89 and 16.33%, and 3.4 and 5.62% for samples A and B, respectively. The results indicate that the higher the compactive efforts, the higher the CBR values of the two samples. Increase in SDA contents of soil samples A and B showed a non-predictable trend on their CBR values. The Unconfined Compressive Strength values at natural and treated states fell below the requirements. Generally, it was found that the use of sawdust ash alone as stabilizer was not effective. Therefore, it was concluded that future studies should consider the use of the sawdust ash in combination with cement or lime.


Sawdust; Ash; Laterite; Compaction; Effort; Strength; Stabilisation.


Jegede, G. "Highway pavement failure induced by soil properties along the F209 highway at Omuoke, southwestern Nigeria." Nigeria Journal of Science 31 (1997): 121-126.

Rahardjo, H, K.K Aung, E.C Leong, and R.B Rezaur. “Characteristics of Residual Soils in Singapore as Formed by Weathering.” Engineering Geology 73, no. 1–2 (May 2004): 157–169. doi:10.1016/j.enggeo.2004.01.002.

Alexander, Lyle T., and John G. Cady. “Genesis and Hardening of Laterite in Soils.” Soil Science 96, no. 1 (July 1963): 75. doi:10.1097/00010694-196307000-00015.

Thagesen, B. “Tropical rocks and soils, In: Highway and traffic engineering in developing countries.” Chapman and Hall, London, (1996). doi.10.4324/9780203223673_chapter_13.

Olutoge, F.A., Adeniran, K.M. and Oyegbile, O.B. “The Ultimate Strength Behaviour of Laterised Concrete Beam.” Science Research 1no. 3 (2013): 52-58. doi: 10.11648/j.sr.20130103.14.

Bell, F.G. “Engineering geology.” Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1993):84-86. ISBN-13:978-0-7506-8077-6.

Anouksak, T., and L. Direk. "Stabilisation of reclaimed asphalt pavement using foamed Asphalt." In Proceedings in the Technology and Innovation for Sustainable Development Conference (TISD 2006), Sponsored by Faculty of Engineering, KhonKaen Univ., Thailand. 2006.

Garber, N.J. and Hoel, L.A. “Traffic and highway engineering.” 2nd ed. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, London, 2000.

Ola, S.A. “Stabilization of Nigerian Lateritic Soils with Cement, Bitumen and Lime.” International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts 12, no. 9 (September 1975): 133. doi:10.1016/0148-9062(75)91224-3.

Madu, R.M. “Techniques for improving the property of soils for civil engineering purposes.” In S.A. Ola (Ed.), Essentials of geotechnical engineering, University Press PLC, Ibadan, Nigeria, (2013): 355-376.

Aribisala, O. A. "Sourcing of Local Raw materials and Investment Opportunity in Building/Construction Industrial Sector." In Proceedings of the National Workshop held at Central Hotel, Kano, (1989): 23-37.

Akhubi, A.O. “The use of saw dust ash as a potential partial cement replacement material.” B.Sc thesis submitted to the department of Civil Engineering, University of Nairobi, (2014).

Adetoro, A.E., and Adekanmi, J.S. “Evaluation of Presence of Sawdust and Palm Kernel Shell Ashes on Geotechnical Properties of Ekiti State Soil.” Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology 2 no. 11 (2015): 3184-3188.

Ogunribido, Thompson Henry Tolulope. “Geotechnical Properties of Saw Dust Ash Stabilized Southwestern Nigeria Lateritic Soils.” Environmental Research, Engineering and Management 60, no. 2 (June 18, 2012): 29-33. doi:10.5755/j01.erem.60.2.986.

Adetoro, E. A., and J. O. Adam. "Analysis of Influences of Locally Available Additives on Geotechnical Properties of Ekiti State Soil, Southwestern, Nigeria." International Journal of Innovative, Research in Science, Engineering and Technology (IJIRSET) 4, no. 8 (2015): 7093-7099.

Tyagher, S.T., Utseva, J.T., and Adagba, T. “Suitability of Saw Dust Ash-Lime Mixture for Production of Sandcrete Hollow Blocks.” Nigerian Journal of Technology, 30(1) 2011: 79-84.

Gwarah, L. S., B. M. Akatah, I. Onungwe, and P. P. Akpan. “Partial Replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement with Sawdust Ash in Concrete.” Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology (February 22, 2019): 1–7. doi:10.9734/cjast/2019/v32i630036.

Ayodele, A.L., O.M. Oketope, and O.S. Olatunde. “Effect of Sawdust Ash and Eggshell Ash on Selected Engineering Properties of Lateralized Bricks for Low Cost Housing.” Nigerian Journal of Technology 38, no. 2 (April 16, 2019): 278. doi:10.4314/njt.v38i2.1.

Nnochiri, Emeka Segun, Helen Oluyemisi Emeka, and Moses Tanimola. “Geotechnical Characteristics Of Lateritic Soil Stabilized With Sawdust Ash-Lime Mixtures.” Stavební Obzor - Civil Engineering Journal 26, no. 1 (2017): 66–76. doi:10.14311/cej.2017.01.0007.

Ojuri, Oluwapelumi O., and Opeyemi E. Oluwatuyi. “Compacted Sawdust Ash–lime-Stabilised Soil-Based Hydraulic Barriers for Waste Containment.” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Waste and Resource Management 171, no. 2 (May 2018): 52–60. doi:10.1680/jwarm.17.00037.

Obeta, I.N., C.C. Ikeagwuani, C.M. Attama, and J Okafor. “Stability and Durability of Sawdust Ash-Lime Stabilised Black Cotton Soil.” Nigerian Journal of Technology 38, no. 1 (January 16, 2019): 75. doi:10.4314/njt.v38i1.10.

Moses, G., A. Saminu, and F. O. P. Oriola. "Influence of Compactive Efforts on Compacted Foundry Sand Treated With Cement Kiln Dust." Civil and Environmental Research 2, no. 5 (2012): 11-24.

Moses, G., and K. J. Osinubi. "Influence of compactive efforts on cement-bagasse ash treatment of expansive black cotton soil." World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 7, no. 7 (2013).

Mu’Azu, Mohammed Abdullahi. "Influence of compactive effort on Bagasse ash with cement treated lateritic soil." Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies 10, no. 1 (2007): 79-92.

Europa Technologies, Google Earth 2010, Available: http://earth.google.com. Accessed January, 2018.

British Standard 1924. “Methods of tests for stabilized soils.” British Standards Institute, London, 1990.

British Standard 1377. “British standard methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes.” UK: London, 1990, British Standards Institution.

American Society for Testing and Materials. “Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Cement; Lime; Gypsum, (ASTM).” 04(01), West Conshohocken, PA, USA, 1986.

Materials Manual. “UCS Stabilised Materials.” Western Cape Provincial Administration, Transport and Public Works Department. First edition, 2006.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). “Standard Specification for Transportation Materials and Methods of Sampling and Testing.” USA: Washington DC, 1986.

Federal Ministry of Works and Housing (FMWH). “General Specification (Roads and Bridges).” Revised Edition (Volume II), Nigeria, Abuja, 1997.

Schellmann, W. “A new definition of laterite.” Geological Survey of India Memoir, 120 (1986): 1-7.

Casagrande, A. “Classification and Identification of Soils.” Transactions, ASCE, Vol. 113 (1948): 901–930.

Burmister, Donald M. "Principles and techniques of soil identification." In Proceedings of Annual Highway Research Board Meeting. National Research Council. Washington, DC, vol. 29, pp. 402-434. 1949.

C. Liu C, and Evett, J. “Soils and foundation.” Prentice Hall, Sixth edition, USA, 2003.

J.W.S De Graft-Johnson. “Engineering properties of lateritic soil.” Proceedings of the special session in laterite soils, 4 (1969):1050-1066.

Whitlow, R. “Basic Soil Mechanics.” 3rd edition Addison Wesley Longman Limited, Edinburgh Gate, 1995.

TRRL, A guide to the structural design of bitumen surfaced roads in tropical and sub–tropical countries. Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Road Note 31, Crowthorne, Berkshire, United Kingdom, 1977.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-2019-03091428


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.