Assessment Resistance Potential to Moisture Damage and Rutting for HMA Mixtures Reinforced by Steel Fibers

Ahmed Abbas Saleem, Mohammed Qadir Ismael


Rutting is mainly referring to pavement permanent deformation, it is a major problem for flexible pavement and it is a complicated process and highly observed along with many segments of asphalt pavement in Iraq. The occurrence of this defect is related to several variables such as elevated temperatures and high wheel loads. Studying effective methods to reduce rutting distress is of great significance for providing a safe and along-life road. The asphalt mixture used to be modified by adding different types of additives. The addition of additives typically excesses stiffness, improves temperature susceptibility, and reduces moisture sensitivity. For this work, steel fibres have been used for modifying asphalt mixture as they incorporated in the specimens by three percentages designated as 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 % by the weight of asphalt mixture. The evaluation process based on conducting Marshall Test, Compressive strength test, and the wheel tracking test. The optimum asphalt content was determined for asphalt mixture. The results of the Marshall quotient and the index of retained strength of modified mixtures were increased by 44.0 and 17.38% respectively with adding 1.0% of steel fibres compared with the conventional mixture. The rut depth and dynamic stability were determined by using a wheel tracking test at two various testing temperatures of 45 and 55°C and two applied stresses of 70 and 80 psi. Results show that adding 1% of steel fibres to asphalt mixtures is very effective in increase the rutting resistance and reduce moisture damage.


Rutting Resistance; Moisture Damage; Dynamic Stability; Steel Fibers; Wheel Tracking Test.


Agar E, Oztas G, Sutas I., “Concrete roads”, Istanbul, Istanbul Technical University Press, (1998).

Arslan, M., S. Subasi, G. Durmus, O. Carter, and K. Stars. "Design and construction of concrete road concrete cladding alternative method research." Ankara: Gazi University Scientific Research Projects (2007).

Al-Shaybani, Mohammed Aziz Hameed. "Wheel Track Test to Predict Permanent deformation (Rutting depth) of Hot-Mix Asphalt Pavements and Using Silica Fume to Reduce Effect of Permanent Deformation." Journal of Kerbala University 16, no. 1 (2018): 104-113.

Uomoto, Taketo, Hiroshi Mutsuyoshi, Futoshi Katsuki, and Sudhir Misra. "Use of fiber reinforced polymer composites as reinforcing material for concrete." Journal of materials in civil engineering 14, no. 3 (2002): 191-209. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0899-1561(2002)14:3(191).

Salari, Zohreh, Behnam Vakhshouri, and Shami Nejadi. “Analytical Review of the Mix Design of Fiber Reinforced High Strength Self-Compacting Concrete.” Journal of Building Engineering 20 (November 2018): 264–276. doi:10.1016/j.jobe.2018.07.025.

Elanchezhian, C., B.Vijaya Ramnath, G. Ramakrishnan, M. Rajendrakumar, V. Naveenkumar, and M.K. Saravanakumar. “Review on Mechanical Properties of Natural Fiber Composites.” Materials Today: Proceedings 5, no. 1 (2018): 1785–1790. doi:10.1016/j.matpr.2017.11.276.

Sood, Mohit, and Gaurav Dwivedi. “Effect of Fiber Treatment on Flexural Properties of Natural Fiber Reinforced Composites: A Review.” Egyptian Journal of Petroleum 27, no. 4 (December 2018): 775–783. doi:10.1016/j.ejpe.2017.11.005.

Slebi-Acevedo, Carlos J., Pedro Lastra-González, Pablo Pascual-Muñoz, and Daniel Castro-Fresno. “Mechanical Performance of Fibers in Hot Mix Asphalt: A Review.” Construction and Building Materials 200 (March 2019): 756–769. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.12.171.

Mohammed, Monketh, Tony Parry, Nick Thom, and James Grenfell. “Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Fibre Reinforced Asphalt Mixtures.” Construction and Building Materials 240 (April 2020): 117932. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.117932.

Shahrukh Kureshi, Neha Duryodhan, Ashwini Jiwane, Rishi Dubey, Nidhi Vishwakarma, and KshmaDhanwate “To Study the Behavior of Asphalt Concrete Pavement Using Steel Wool Fiber”, International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) 6, no. 3 (2019): 3375-3381.

Çetin, Sedat. “Evaluation on the Usability of Structure Steel Fiber-Reinforced Bituminous Hot Mixtures.” Construction and Building Materials 64 (August 2014): 414–420. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.04.093.

Guo, Jie Fei. “The Effect of Steel Fiber on the Road Performence of Asphalt Concrete.” Applied Mechanics and Materials 584–586 (July 2014): 1342–1345. doi:10.4028/

Aniruddh and Parveen Berwal, “An Experimental Study on Behaviour of Steel Fibre on Bituminous Mixes (Bitumen Concrete)”, International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology 6, no. 4 (2016): 1220-1223.

Köfteci, Sevil. “Experimental Study on the Low-Cost Iron Wire Fiber Reinforced Asphalt Concrete.” Teknik Dergi (July 1, 2018): 8515-8535. doi:10.18400/tekderg.350135.

Zainab Ahmed Al-Kaissi, Ahmed S. D. Al-Ridha and Sarah Muhammad Kareem “Improving the Rutting Resistance of Flexible Pavement Reinforced with Steel Fiber”, Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR) 3, no. 12 (2017): 2454-1362.

SCRB, "Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge", Section R/9, Hot-Mix Asphalt Concrete Pavement, Revised Edition, (2003), State Corporation of Roads and Bridges, Ministry of Housing and Construction, Republic of Iraq.

ASTM, "Road and Paving Materials Vehicle Pavement Systems", Annual Book of ASTM Standards, (2018), Vol. 04 and Vol. 05, American Society for Testing and Materials.

Abdulkhaleq Mahdi, Ali, and Mohammed Qadir Ismael. “Rutting Resistance Potential of High Modulus Asphalt Concrete Pavements.” Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 14, no. 12 (December 10, 2019): 4183–4190. doi:10.36478/jeasci.2019.4183.4190.

Raof, Hussein Burhan, and Mohammed Qadir Ismael. “Effect of PolyPhosphoric Acid on Rutting Resistance of Asphalt Concrete Mixture.” Civil Engineering Journal 5, no. 9 (September 1, 2019): 1929–1940. doi:10.28991/cej-2019-03091383.

Kyokai, N.D., “Pavement investigation and testing methods handbook [Hosou Chousa Shikenhou Binran]”, 3, Japan, Japan Road Association, (2007).

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-2020-03091578


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Ahmed Abbas Saleem, Mohammed Qadir Ismael

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.