Finite Element Analysis of Functionally Graded Beams using Different Beam Theories
The present study deals with buckling, free vibration, and bending analysis of Functionally Graded (FG) and porous FG beams based on various beam theories. Equation of motion and boundary conditions are derived from Hamilton’s principle, and the finite element method is adopted to solve problems numerically. The FG beams are graded through the thickness direction, and the material distribution is controlled by power-law volume fraction. The effects of the different values of the power-law index, porosity exponent, and different boundary conditions on bending, natural frequencies and buckling characteristics are also studied. A new function is introduced to approximate the transverse shear strain in higher-order shear deformation theory. Furthermore, shifting the position of the neutral axis is taken into account. The results obtained numerically are validated with results obtained from ANSYS and those available in the previous work. The results of this study specify the crucial role of slenderness ratio, material distribution, and porosity condition on the characteristic of FG beams. The deflection results obtained by the proposed function have a maximum of six percent difference when the results are compared with ANSYS. It also has better results in comparison with the Reddy formulae, especially when the beam becomes slender.
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