Water Stress Mitigation in the Vit River Basin Based on WEAP and MatLab Simulation

Emil Tsanov, Irina Ribarova, Galina Dimova, Plamen Ninov, Maggie Kossida, Christos Makropoulos


The presented study aims at the development of an approach, which will enable selection of optimal measures for mitigation of water stress. The approach is based on two software pillars – Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP) and MatLab, which are applied in combination. The approach has three main steps: 1) modeling of the river basin with WEAP software 2) selecting mitigation measures and preparation of intervention curves and 3) running of an optimization using MatLab to select the mitigation measures. The set of the applied mitigation measures includes: reducing urban water demand and supply, reducing water demand for irrigation, and rehabilitation of the irrigation system. The result of the performed optimization with objectives set as minimal investment and water abstraction shows that in the Vit River basin the best combination of mitigation measures are a change in irrigation practice as well as reducing leakage in the irrigation distribution network and in the municipal distribution network. The optimization results show that 36% of the abstracted water could be saved if 2.1 million EUR were invested. The approach which was developed and applied in this work proved its suitability for facilitating decision making for water stress management at a river basin level.


Doi: 10.28991/cej-2020-03091602

Full Text: PDF


Decision Support System (DSS); Matlab; Mitigation Measures; Optimization; Water Resources Management; Water Stress; WEAP.


COM. “Communication from the commission to the European parliament, the council, the European economic and social committee and the committee of the regions roadmap to a resource efficient Europe.” European Commission (2011); 571 Final.

COM. “Report on the Review of the European Water Scarcity and Droughts Policy.” European Commission (2012); 672 Final.

Bojovic, D., Giupponi, C., Klug, H., Morper-Busch, L., Cojocaru, G., Schörghofer, R. “An online platform supporting the analysis of water adaptation measures in the Alps”, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management (April 2017). doi:10.1080/09640568.2017.1301251.

Zhou, Y., Huang, G., Wang, S., Li, Z., Zhou, Y. “Factorial fuzzy programming for planning water resources management systems.” Journal of Environmental Planning and Management (December 2015) vol. 59, issue 10, p. 1855-1872. doi:10.1080/09640568.2015.1093924.

Cockerill, K., Groothuis, P., Mohr, T., Cooper, C. “Individualized water source as an indicator of attitudes about water management and conservation in humid regions.” Journal of Environmental Planning and Management (September 2015), vol. 59, issue 8 p. 1341-1359, doi:10.1080/09640568.2015.1075871.

Shahzad, Gulfam; Rehan, Rashid; Fahim, Muhammad, ” Rapid Performance Evaluation of Water Supply Services for Strategic Planning”. Civil Engineering Journal (May 2019), 5(5):1197-1204, doi:10.28991/cej-2019-03091324.

EEA. “Water resources across Europe — confronting water scarcity and drought.” European Environmental Agency (2009) EEA Report No. 2/2009. doi:10.2800/16803.

COM. “Water for life - LIFE for water: Protecting Europe’s water resources.” European Commission (2010). doi:10.2779/22224.

COM. “Living well, within the limits of our planet Decision of the European Parliament and of the Council on a General Union Environment Action Programme to 2020.” European Commission (2012), 710 Final.

Druzdzel, M., Flynn, R. “Decision Support Systems.” Pittsburgh Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, Second Edition (2002).

Matrosov, E., Harou, J., Loucks, D. “A computationally efficient open-source water resource system simulator e Application to London and the Thames Basin.” Environmental Modelling & Software (December 2011) 26, 1599-1610. doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2011.07.013.

Sechi, Giovanni M. and Sulis, Andrea, "Intercomparison of Generic Simulation Models for Water Resource Systems" (2010). International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software. 168. Available online: https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu /iemssconference/2010/all/168. (Accessed on 23 May 2020).

Sulis, A., Sechi, G. “Comparison of generic simulation models for water resource systems.” Environmental Modelling & Software (February 2013) 40, 214–225. doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2012.09.012.

Pallottino, S., Sechi, G., Zuddas, P. “A DSS for water resources management under uncertainty by scenario analysis.” Environmental Modelling & Software 20 (August 2005) 1031–1042. doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2004.09.012.

Ke, W., Lei, Y., Sha, J., Zhang, G.,Yan, J., Lin, X., Pan, X. “Dynamic simulation of water resource management focused on water allocation and water reclamation in Chinese mining cities.” Water Policy (January 2016) 18, 844–861. doi:10.2166/wp.2016.085.

Klein, T.; Holzkämper, A.; Calanca, P.; and Fuhrer, J., "Identifying Optimum Strategies for Land Management Adaptation to Climate Change - A Multiobjective Approach" (2012). International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software. 96. Available online: https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/iemssconference/2012/Stream-B/96.

Panagopoulos, Yiannis; Makropoulos, Christos; and Mimikou, Maria, "A Multi-Objective Decision Support Tool for Rural BasinManagement" (2012). International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software. 159, https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/iemssconference/2012/Stream-B/159. (Accessed on 23 May 2020).

Amin, Ali; Iqbal, Javed; Asghar, Areesha ; Ribbe Lars, "Analysis of Current and Future Water Demands in the Upper Indus Basin under IPCC Climate and Socio-Economic Scenarios Using a Hydro-Economic WEAP Model" Water (April 2018) 10(5):537. doi:10.3390/w10050537.

Agarwal, Sunny ; Patil, Jyoti ; Goyal, Vikas; Singh, Ajai, "Assessment of Water Supply–Demand Using Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) Model for Ur River Watershed, Madhya Pradesh, India". Journal of the Institution of Engineers (India): Agricultural Engineering Division (October 2018), doi:10.1007/s40030-018-0329-0.

Laidia, Zerkaoui; Mohamed, Benslimane; Abderrahmane, Hamimed, "Planning and systematic management of water resources by the WEAP model, case of the Mabtouh watershed (Northwestern Algeria)". Arabian Journal of Geosciences (December 2018), 11(779):1-17, doi:10.1007/s12517-018-4138-6.

Al-Shutayri, Ahmed Saad ; Al-Juaidi, Ahmed E., "Assessment of future urban water resources supply and demand for Jeddah City based on the WEAP model". Arabian Journal of Geosciences (July 2019), 12(14), doi:10.1007/s12517-019-4594-7.

Kou, Limin; Li, Xiangyang; Jianyi, Lin; Kang, Jiefeng, "Simulation of Urban Water Resources in Xiamen Based on a WEAP Model". Water (June 2018), 10(6):732, doi:10.3390/w10060732.

Dehghanipour, Amir; Zahabiyoun, Bagher; Schoups, Gerrit; Babazadeh, Hossein, "A WEAP-MODFLOW surface water-groundwater model for the irrigated Miyandoab plain, Urmia lake basin, Iran: Multi-objective calibration and quantification of historical drought impacts". Agricultural Water Management (August 2019), 223:105704, doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2019.105704.

Mena, Darwin; Solera, Abel; Restrepo, Lina; Duarte, Freddy, "An analysis of unmet water demand under climate change scenarios in the Gualí River Basin, Colombia, through the implementation of Hydro-BID and WEAP hydrological modeling tools". Journal of Water and Climate Change (December 2019), doi:10.2166/wcc.2019.118.

Deb, K., “Multi-Objective Optimization Using Evolutionary Algorithms: An Introduction.” KanGAL Report Number 2011003 (2011). doi:10.1007/978-0-85729-652-8_1.

Van Veldhuizen, D., Lamont, G. Multiobjective evolutionary algorithms: analysing the state of the art. Evolutionary Computation (2000) 8(2), 125–147. doi:10.1162/106365600568158.

MOEW. “General schemes for water use in the river basin management, Volume II. Danube region - River Vit.” Project of the Ministry of Environment and Water, (2000).

Dimova, G., Tzanov, E., Ninov, P., Ribarova, I., & Kossida, M. “Complementary use of the WEAP model to underpin the development of SEEAW physical water use and supply tables.” Procedia Engineering (December 2014), 70, 563-572. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2014.02.062.

Tsanov, E. Calibration of WEAP model for watershed of River Vit. Water Affairs (2014), 1/2, 32-40 (in Bulgarian).

Mudgal, Sh., Lauranson R., Jean-Baptiste, V., Bain J., Broutin, N., Inman, D., Muro, M. “Study on water performance of buildings.” European Commission (DG Env) (2009) Reference 070307/2008/520703/ETU/D2.

Dimitrov, G. “Reducing the water losses from water supply systems.” ABC Technique (2014) (in Bulgarian).

Dimitrov, G., Dimitrov, V. “Effective solution to reduce water losses and the number of failures in the lower area of the town of Kardzhali.” Bulaqua (2009) № 3/4, 74-77 (in Bulgarian).

Kalinkov, Petar; Vladov, Georgi; Radovanov, Viden, (2012). Program for losses reduction in the water supply system of the city of Vidin. “5th International Conference "Reducing Water Losses in Water Supply Systems", Sofia (in Bulgarian).

Brouwer, C., Prins, K., Kay, M., Heibloem, M. “Irrigation Water Management: Irrigation Methods.” Fao - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2011).

Yates, D., Lavin, F., Purkey, D., Guerrero, S., Hanemann, M., Sieber, J. “Using economic and other performance measures to evaluate a municipal drought plan.” Water Policy (July 2013) 15 (4) 648-668, doi:10.2166/wp.2013.204.

Sharma, B., Condappa, D. “Opportunities for harnessing the increased contribution of glacier and snowmelt flows in the Ganges basin.” Water Policy (October 2013), 15 (S1) 9-25, doi:10.2166/wp.2013.008.

Bharati, L., Smakhtin, V., Anand, B. “Modeling water supply and demand scenarios: the Godavari–Krishna inter-basin transfer”, India, Water Policy (May 2009), 11 (S1) 140-153. doi:10.2166/wp.2009.109.

Li, X., Zhao, Y., Shi, Ch., Sha, J., Wang, Zh., Wang, Y. “Application of Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) model for water resources management strategy estimation in coastal Binhai New Area, China.” Ocean & Coastal Management (March 2015) 106, 97-109. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2015.01.016.

Ishibuchi, H., Tsukamoto, N., Nojima, Y. “Evolutionary Many-Objective Optimization: A Short Review.” Proceeding of 2008 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, pp. 2424-2431. doi:10.1109/CEC.2008.4631121.

Asghar, Areesha; Iqbal, Javed; Amin, Ali; Ribbe, Lars, “Integrated hydrological modeling for assessment of water demand and supply under socio-economic and IPCC climate change scenarios using WEAP in Central Indus Basin”. Aqua (February 2019), 68(5). doi:10.2166/aqua.2019.106.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-2020-03091602


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Emil Tsanov

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.