Inelastic Analysis of Mdof Systems Damaged by Earthquakes, Posteriorly Subjected to Wind Load
This paper deals with the analysis of the inelastic response of buildings originally damaged by earthquakes and subjected to earthquake aftershock and wind loading. The overall aim is to establish the effect of wind actions on structural stability. To that end, one four-story bare frame benchmarked by the European Laboratory for Structural Assessment, is subject to various levels of winds and earthquake joint load while monitoring changes on the ductility demand. In this paper is shown that the combined action of strong winds and earthquakes, however its low probability of occurrence, would cause a decrease of strength reduction factors and considerably increase the ductility demand of damaged infrastructure hence inducing additional risks that would otherwise remain unquantified. The paper examines the non-linear performance of Multi-degree of freedom systems subject to various levels of winds and earthquake load and deals with the estimation of strength reduction factors. This is a relatively unexplored area of research which builds on past developments whereby inelastic performance of buildings has been discussed. It also links to various other paths of development such as structural reliability, forensic and control systems engineering.
Full Text: PDF
Park, Young-Ji, Alfredo H-S. Ang, and Yi Kwei Wen. "Seismic damage analysis of reinforced concrete buildings." Journal of Structural Engineering 111, no. 4 (1985): 740-757. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1985)111:4(740).
Yi, Wei-Jian, Hai-Yan Zhang, and Sashi K. Kunnath. “Probabilistic Constant-Strength Ductility Demand Spectra.” Journal of Structural Engineering 133, no. 4 (April 2007): 567–575. doi:10.1061/(asce)0733-9445(2007)133:4(567).
Hatzigeorgiou, George D., and Dimitri E. Beskos. “Inelastic Displacement Ratios for SDOF Structures Subjected to Repeated Earthquakes.” Engineering Structures 31, no. 11 (November 2009): 2744–2755. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2009.07.002.
Hatzigeorgiou, G.D. “Behavior Factors for Nonlinear Structures Subjected to Multiple Near-Fault Earthquakes.” Computers & Structures 88, no. 5–6 (March 2010): 309–321. doi:10.1016/j.compstruc.2009.11.006.
R.A. Medina, H. Krawinkler, “Seismic demands for non-deteriorating frame structures and their dependence on ground motions,” Report no. 144. Stanford (CA), John A. Blume Earthquake Engineering Center, Department of Civil, Engineering, Stanford University, USA (2003).
Ruiz-García, Jorge, and Eduardo Miranda. “Residual Displacement Ratios for Assessment of Existing Structures.” Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics 35, no. 3 (2006): 315–336. doi:10.1002/eqe.523.
Chopra, Anil K., and Chatpan Chintanapakdee. “Comparing Response of SDOF Systems to Near-Fault and Far-Fault Earthquake Motions in the Context of Spectral Regions.” Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics 30, no. 12 (2001): 1769–1789. doi:10.1002/eqe.92.
Amos, J. "Unsettled earth continues to rattle Nepal." BBC News-12 May (2015).
Daniell, J. E., B. Khazai, F. Wenzel, and A. Vervaeck. “The CATDAT Damaging Earthquakes Database.” Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 11, no. 8 (August 18, 2011): 2235–2251. doi:10.5194/nhess-11-2235-2011.
Martinez-Vazquez, P. “Wind-Induced Vibrations of Structures Using Design Spectra.” International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering 8, no. 4 (October 31, 2016): 379–389. doi:10.1007/s40091-016-0139-4.
Pinto, A., G. Verzeletti, J. Molina, H. Varum, R. Pinho, and E. Coelho. "Pseudo-dynamic tests on non-seismic resisting RC frames (bare and selective retrofit frames)." EUR Report 20244 (2002).
Carvalho, E. C., Ema Coelho, and A. Campos-Costa. "Preparation of the full-scale tests on reinforced concrete frames-Characteristics of the test specimens, materials and testing conditions." ICONS report, Innovative Seismic Design Concepts for New and Existing Structures, European TMR Network-LNEC, Lisbon (1999).
Miranda, Eduardo. “Site-Dependent Strength-Reduction Factors.” Journal of Structural Engineering 119, no. 12 (December 1993): 3503-3519. doi:10.1061/(asce)0733-9445(1993)119:12(3503).
Miranda, Eduardo, and Vitelmo V. Bertero. “Evaluation of Strength Reduction Factors for Earthquake-Resistant Design.” Earthquake Spectra 10, no. 2 (May 1994): 357–379. doi:10.1193/1.1585778.
Chopra, Anil K., and Rakesh K. Goel. “Capacity-Demand-Diagram Methods Based on Inelastic Design Spectrum.” Earthquake Spectra 15, no. 4 (November 1999): 637–656. doi:10.1193/1.1586065.
Riddell, Rafael, Jaime E. Garcia, and Eugenio Garces. “Inelastic Deformation Response of SDOF Systems Subjected to Earthquakes.” Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics 31, no. 3 (2002): 515–538. doi:10.1002/eqe.142.
Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Centre (PEER). PEER ground motion database. Available online: http://ngawest2.berkeley.edu/#disclaimer (accessed on March 2020).
Mavroeidis, G. P. “A Mathematical Representation of Near-Fault Ground Motions.” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 93, no. 3 (June 1, 2003): 1099–1131. doi:10.1785/0120020100.
Gillie, Joanna L., Adrian Rodriguez-Marek, and Cole McDaniel. “Strength Reduction Factors for Near-Fault Forward-Directivity Ground Motions.” Engineering Structures 32, no. 1 (January 2010): 273–285. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2009.09.014.
Bray, Jonathan D., and Adrian Rodriguez-Marek. “Characterization of Forward-Directivity Ground Motions in the Near-Fault Region.” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 24, no. 11 (December 2004): 815–828. doi:10.1016/j.soildyn.2004.05.001.
Vanmarcke, Erik H., Ernesto Heredia-Zavoni, and Gordon A. Fenton. “Conditional Simulation of Spatially Correlated Earthquake Ground Motion.” Journal of Engineering Mechanics 119, no. 11 (November 1993): 2333-2352. doi:10.1061/(asce)0733-9399(1993)119:11(2333).
Dyrbye, Claës, and Svend Ole Hansen. “Wind loads on structures.” (1997).
Simiu E, Scanlan H. “Wind effects on structures: an introduction to wind engineering.” University of Michigan (1978): 589.
Gurley, Kurtis R., Michael A. Tognarelli, and Ahsan Kareem. “Analysis and Simulation Tools for Wind Engineering.” Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics 12, no. 1 (January 1997): 9–31. doi:10.1016/s0266-8920(96)00010-0.
Martínez-Vázquez, Pedro, and Neftalí Rodríguez-Cuevas. “Wind Field Reproduction Using Neural Networks and Conditional Simulation.” Engineering Structures 29, no. 7 (July 2007): 1442–1449. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2006.08.024.
Martinez-Vazquez, P., C.J. Baker, M. Sterling, A. Quinn, and P.J. Richards. “Aerodynamic Forces on Fixed and Rotating Plates.” Wind and Structures an International Journal 13, no. 2 (March 25, 2010): 127–144. doi:10.12989/was.2010.13.2.127.
Thordal, Marie Skytte, Jens Chr Bennetsen, Stefano Capra, and H. Holger H. Koss. “Towards a Standard CFD Setup for Wind Load Assessment of High-Rise Buildings: Part 1 – Benchmark of the CAARC Building.” Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 205 (October 2020): 104283. doi:10.1016/j.jweia.2020.104283.
Vickery B J. “On the reliability of gust loading factors. Proc. Technical Meeting Concerning Wind Loads on Buildings and Structures.” Build. Sc. Ser. 30. Ntl. Bureau of Standards, Washington DC, (1970): 93-104.
Davenport, Alan G. “Gust Loading Factors.” Journal of the Structural Division 93, no. 3 (March 1967): 11–34. doi:10.1061/jsdeag.0001692.
Tena-Colunga, A. "Displacement ductility demand spectra for the seismic evaluation of structures." Engineering Structures 23, no. 10 (2001): 1319-1330. doi: 10.1016/S0141-0296(01)00025-6.
SeismoSoft, SeismoStruct. “A computer program for static and dynamic nonlinear analysis of framed structures,” (2016) Available online: https://seismosoft.com/wp-content/uploads/prods/lib/SeismoStruct-2021-User-Manual_ENG.pdf (accessed on December 2020).
Mander, J. B., M. J. N. Priestley, and R. Park. “Theoretical Stress‐Strain Model for Confined Concrete.” Journal of Structural Engineering 114, no. 8 (September 1988): 1804–1826. doi:10.1061/(asce)0733-9445(1988)114:8(1804).
Popovics, Sandor. “A Numerical Approach to the Complete Stress-Strain Curve of Concrete.” Cement and Concrete Research 3, no. 5 (September 1973): 583–599. doi:10.1016/0008-8846(73)90096-3.
Richart, Frank Erwin, Anton Brandtzæg, and Rex Lenoi Brown. “A study of the failure of concrete under combined compressive stresses.” University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, College of Engineering. Engineering Experiment Station, (1928).
Menegotto, Marco., and P.E. Pinto "Method of analysis for cyclically loaded RC plane frames including changes in geometry and non-elastic behavior of elements under combined normal force and bending." In Proc. of IABSE symposium on resistance and ultimate deformability of structures acted on by well-defined repeated loads, (1973): 15-22.
Tanaka, H., and N. Lawen. "Test on the CAARC standard tall building model with a length scale of 1: 1000." Journal of wind engineering and industrial aerodynamics 25, no. 1 (1986): 15-29.
Copyright (c) 2021 oualid Badla
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.