Properties of Self-Compacting Mortar Containing Slag with Different Finenesses
It is well established that Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) contains large amounts of fines including mineral admixtures, such as fly ash and slag, in order to avoid segregation and to increase cohesion. The use of these materials in concrete reduces CO2 emissions and contributes towards sustainable construction. To overcome the negative effect of slag on the strength development slag was ground to three finenesses. Therefore, this paper examines the rheological, compressive strength, total and autogenous shrinkage and capillary water absorption of Self-Compacting Mortars (SCM) containing ground granulated blast furnace Slag (S). A total of seven mortar mixes were prepared. The control mix had a proportion of 1 (cement): 1.8 (sand): 0.38 (water). In the other mixes, the cement was partially replaced with 15% and 30% slag of different fineness of 350, 420, and 500 m2/kg. The other constituents remained unchanged. Testing included slump flow, V-funnel flow time, yield stress and viscosity, compressive strength, total and autogenous shrinkage, and capillary water absorption. The presence of slag was found to reduce the plastic viscosity and yield stress of SCM mixtures as the content and the fineness increase. The higher the fineness (specific surface) of the slag the less the rheological parameters (i.e. slump flow and viscosity). The results show also a reduction in compressive strength of SCM at early ages of curing in the presence of slag. However, in the long-term, the compressive strength of SCM mixtures containing slag was higher than that of control mortar. Generally, there is reduction in the total shrinkage and an increase in the autogenous shrinkage of SCM mixtures as the content and fineness increase.
Full Text: PDF
Murali .P, Lilly Grace, and V. Sampathkumar. “Evaluation of Heat Resistance Adequacy and Non Combustible Materials Construction of a Multifunctional Building.” Civil Engineering Journal 4, no. 8 (August 31, 2018): 1877. doi:10.28991/cej-03091122.
Barbhuiya, Salim. “Effects of Fly Ash and Dolomite Powder on the Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete.” Construction and Building Materials 25, no. 8 (August 2011): 3301–3305. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.03.018.
Boukendakdji, Othmane, El-Hadj Kadri, and Said Kenai. “Effects of Granulated Blast Furnace Slag and Superplasticizer Type on the Fresh Properties and Compressive Strength of Self-Compacting Concrete.” Cement and Concrete Composites 34, no. 4 (April 2012): 583–590. doi:10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2011.08.013.
Belaidi, A.S.E., L. Azzouz, E. Kadri, and S. Kenai. “Effect of Natural Pozzolana and Marble Powder on the Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete.” Construction and Building Materials 31 (June 2012): 251–257. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.12.109.
Siddique, Rafat. “Compressive Strength, Water Absorption, Sorptivity, Abrasion Resistance and Permeability of Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Coal Bottom Ash.” Construction and Building Materials 47 (October 2013): 1444–1450. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.06.081.
Wang, Her-Yung, and Chih-Chung Lin. “A Study of Fresh and Engineering Properties of Self-Compacting High Slag Concrete (SCHSC).” Construction and Building Materials 42 (May 2013): 132–136. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.11.020.
Erdoğan, Sinan T., and Tümay Ç. Koçak. “Influence of Slag Fineness on the Strength and Heat Evolution of Multiple-Clinker Blended Cements.” Construction and Building Materials 155 (November 2017): 800–810. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.08.120.
Patra, Rakesh Kumar, and Bibhuti Bhusan Mukharjee. "Fresh and hardened properties of concrete incorporating ground granulated blast furnace slag–A review." Advances in concrete construction 4, no. 4 (2016): 283-303. doi:10.12989/acc.2017.4.4.283.
Shafigh, Payam, Mohd Zamin Jumaat, Hilmi Bin Mahmud, and U. Johnson Alengaram. “Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Concrete Containing High Volume Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag.” Construction and Building Materials 40 (March 2013): 231-238. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.10.007.
Her, Jae-Won, and Nam-Gi Lim. “Physical and Chemical Properties of Nano-Slag Mixed Mortar.” Journal of the Korea Institute of Building Construction 10, no. 6 (December 20, 2010): 145–154. doi:10.5345/jkic.2010.12.6.145.
Yahiaoui, Walid, Said Kenai, Belkacem Menadi, and El-Hadj Kadri. "Durability of self-compacted concrete containing slag in hot climate." Advances in concrete construction 5, no. 3 (2017): 271-288. doi:10.12989/acc.2017.5.3.271.
Ting, Luo, Wang Qiang, and Zhuang Shiyu. “Effects of Ultra-Fine Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag on Initial Setting Time, Fluidity and Rheological Properties of Cement Pastes.” Powder Technology 345 (March 2019): 54–63. doi:10.1016/j.powtec.2018.12.094.
Gholampour, Aliakbar, and Togay Ozbakkaloglu. “Performance of Sustainable Concretes Containing Very High Volume Class-F Fly Ash and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag.” Journal of Cleaner Production 162 (September 2017): 1407–1417. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.06.087.
Tavasoli, Syamak, Mahmoud Nili, and Behrad Serpoush. “Effect of GGBS on the Frost Resistance of Self-Consolidating Concrete.” Construction and Building Materials 165 (March 2018): 717–722. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.01.027.
Uysal, Mucteba, Kemalettin Yilmaz, and Metin Ipek. “The Effect of Mineral Admixtures on Mechanical Properties, Chloride Ion Permeability and Impermeability of Self-Compacting Concrete.” Construction and Building Materials 27, no. 1 (February 2012): 263–270. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.07.049.
Khodair, Yasser, and Bhagiratha Bommareddy. “Self-Consolidating Concrete Using Recycled Concrete Aggregate and High Volume of Fly Ash, and Slag.” Construction and Building Materials 153 (October 2017): 307–316. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.07.063.
Sharmila, P., and G. Dhinakaran. “Compressive Strength, Porosity and Sorptivity of Ultra-Fine Slag Based High Strength Concrete.” Construction and Building Materials 120 (September 2016): 48–53. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.05.090.
Miura, Takashi, and Ichiro Iwaki. "Strength development of concrete incorporating high levels of ground granulated blast-furnace slag at low temperatures." Materials Journal 97, no. 1 (2000): 66-70.
Tazawa, Ei-ichi, and Shingo Miyazawa. “Experimental Study on Mechanism of Autogenous Shrinkage of Concrete.” Cement and Concrete Research 25, no. 8 (December 1995): 1633–1638. doi:10.1016/0008-8846(95)00159-x.
Persson, Bertil. “A Comparison between Mechanical Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete and the Corresponding Properties of Normal Concrete.” Cement and Concrete Research 31, no. 2 (February 2001): 193–198. doi:10.1016/s0008-8846(00)00497-x.
Leemann, Andreas, Pietro Lura, and Roman Loser. “Shrinkage and Creep of SCC – The Influence of Paste Volume and Binder Composition.” Construction and Building Materials 25, no. 5 (May 2011): 2283–2289. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.11.019.
Wongkeo, Watcharapong, Pailyn Thongsanitgarn, and Arnon Chaipanich. “Compressive Strength and Drying Shrinkage of Fly Ash-Bottom Ash-Silica Fume Multi-Blended Cement Mortars.” Materials & Design (1980-2015) 36 (April 2012): 655–662. doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2011.11.043.
Güneyisi, Erhan, Mehmet Gesoğlu, and Erdoğan Özbay. “Strength and Drying Shrinkage Properties of Self-Compacting Concretes Incorporating Multi-System Blended Mineral Admixtures.” Construction and Building Materials 24, no. 10 (October 2010): 1878–1887. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.04.015.
Dellinghausen, L.M., A.L.G. Gastaldini, F.J. Vanzin, and K.K. Veiga. “Total Shrinkage, Oxygen Permeability, and Chloride Ion Penetration in Concrete Made with White Portland Cement and Blast-Furnace Slag.” Construction and Building Materials 37 (December 2012): 652–659. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.07.076.
Liu, Zhichao, and Will Hansen. “Aggregate and Slag Cement Effects on Autogenous Shrinkage in Cementitious Materials.” Construction and Building Materials 121 (September 2016): 429–436. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.06.012.
Tazawa, E., "Autogenous shrinkage by self-desiccation in cementitious material». Proceedings of 9th international conference on chemistry of cement, New Delhi, (1992): 712–718.
Hadjsadok, Ahmed, Said Kenai, Luc Courard, Frédéric Michel, and Jamal Khatib. “Durability of Mortar and Concretes Containing Slag with Low Hydraulic Activity.” Cement and Concrete Composites 34, no. 5 (May 2012): 671–677. doi:10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2012.02.011.
Menadi, Belkacem, Said Kenai, Sihem Hammat, and Jamal M. Khatib. “The Influence of the Fineness of Mineral Additions on Strength and Drying Shrinkage of Self-Compacting Mortars.” Key Engineering Materials 600 (March 2014): 367–374. doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/kem.600.367.
Okamura, H., K. Ozawa, and M. Ouchi. “Self-Compacting Concrete.” Structural Concrete 1, no. 1 (March 2000): 3–17. doi:10.1680/stco.2000.1.1.3.
EFNARC, The European guidelines for self-compacting concrete, Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol.34, (2012): 583-590.
Adjoudj, M’hamed, Karim Ezziane, El Hadj Kadri, Tien-Tung Ngo, and Abdelhak Kaci. “Evaluation of Rheological Parameters of Mortar Containing Various Amounts of Mineral Addition with Polycarboxylate Superplasticizer.” Construction and Building Materials 70 (November 2014): 549–559. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.07.111.
NF EN 1015-11, Determination of flexural and compressive strength of hardened mortar, Paris: AFNOR; (2007).
NF P 15-433, Test methods for cements- determination of shrinkage and swelling, Paris: AFNOR; (1994).
ASTM 1585-11, Standard test method for measurement of rate of absorption of water by hydraulic cement concretes, (2012).
Numan, Hesham A., Mohammed Hazim Yaseen, and Hussein A. M. S. Al-Juboori. “Comparison Mechanical Properties of Two Types of Light Weight Aggregate Concrete.” Civil Engineering Journal 5, no. 5 (May 21, 2019): 1105–1118. doi:10.28991/cej-2019-03091315.
Menadi, B., S. Kenai, and O. Kouider Djelloul. "Properties of Fresh Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Slag." In 10th International Congress on Advances in Civil Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, (2012): 17-19.
Mohammed, Aseel Madallah, Diler Sabah Asaad, and Abdulkader I. Al-Hadithi. “Experimental and Statistical Evaluation of Rheological Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Fly Ash and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag.” Journal of King Saud University - Engineering Sciences (January 2021). doi:10.1016/j.jksues.2020.12.005.
Gupta, Nikita, and Rafat Siddique. “Durability Characteristics of Self-Compacting Concrete Made with Copper Slag.” Construction and Building Materials 247 (June 2020): 118580. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.118580.
Shi, Yun-Xing, Isamu Matsui, and Yu-Jun Guo. “A Study on the Effect of Fine Mineral Powders with Distinct Vitreous Contents on the Fluidity and Rheological Properties of Concrete.” Cement and Concrete Research 34, no. 8 (August 2004): 1381–1387. doi:10.1016/j.cemconres.2003.12.031.
Menéndez, G, V Bonavetti, and E.F Irassar. “Strength Development of Ternary Blended Cement with Limestone Filler and Blast-Furnace Slag.” Cement and Concrete Composites 25, no. 1 (January 2003): 61–67. doi:10.1016/s0958-9465(01)00056-7.
Wang, Qiang, PeiYu Yan, and Song Han. “The Influence of Steel Slag on the Hydration of Cement during the Hydration Process of Complex Binder.” Science China Technological Sciences 54, no. 2 (February 2011): 388–394. doi:10.1007/s11431-010-4204-0.
Itim, Ahmed, Karim Ezziane, and El-Hadj Kadri. “Compressive Strength and Shrinkage of Mortar Containing Various Amounts of Mineral Additions.” Construction and Building Materials 25, no. 8 (August 2011): 3603–3609. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.03.055.
Phul, Azmat Ali, Muhammad Jaffar Memon, Syed Naveed Raza Shah, and Abdul Razzaque Sandhu. “GGBS And Fly Ash Effects on Compressive Strength by Partial Replacement of Cement Concrete.” Civil Engineering Journal 5, no. 4 (April 27, 2019): 913–921. doi:10.28991/cej-2019-03091299.
Dordi, C. M., A.N. Vyasa Rao, and Manu Santhanam. "Micro fine ground granulated blast furnace slag for high performance concrete." Third International Conference on Sustainable Construction Materials and Technologies, (2013): 3-13.
Pal, S.C, A Mukherjee, and S.R Pathak. “Investigation of Hydraulic Activity of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in Concrete.” Cement and Concrete Research 33, no. 9 (September 2003): 1481–1486. doi:10.1016/s0008-8846(03)00062-0.
Binici, Hanifi, Hüseyin Temiz, and Mehmet M. Köse. “The Effect of Fineness on the Properties of the Blended Cements Incorporating Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag and Ground Basaltic Pumice.” Construction and Building Materials 21, no. 5 (May 2007): 1122–1128. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.11.005.
Zhou, Yongxiang, and Zengqi Zhang. “Effect of Fineness on the Pozzolanic Reaction Kinetics of Slag in Composite Binders: Experiment and Modelling.” Construction and Building Materials 273 (March 2021): 121695. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.121695.
Li, Zaibo, Xuguang Zhao, Tusheng He, Sanyin Zhao, Yang Liu, and Xiaoling Qu. “A Study of High-Performance Slag-Based Composite Admixtures.” Construction and Building Materials 155 (November 2017): 126–136. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.08.054.
Courard, Luc, and Frédéric Michel. “Limestone Fillers Cement Based Composites: Effects of Blast Furnace Slags on Fresh and Hardened Properties.” Construction and Building Materials 51 (January 2014): 439–445. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.10.076.
Elzokra, Ahmed Adel Emhemed, Ausamah Al Houri, Ahed Habib, Maan Habib, and Ahmad Malkawi. “Shrinkage Behavior of Conventional and Nonconventional Concrete: A Review.” Civil Engineering Journal 6, no. 9 (September 1, 2020): 1839–1851. doi:10.28991/cej-2020-03091586.
Gesoğlu, Mehmet, Erhan Güneyisi, and Erdoğan Özbay. “Properties of Self-Compacting Concretes Made with Binary, Ternary, and Quaternary Cementitious Blends of Fly Ash, Blast Furnace Slag, and Silica Fume.” Construction and Building Materials 23, no. 5 (May 2009): 1847–1854. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2008.09.015.
Min, Kyung-Hwan, Hyung-Chul Jung, Jun-Mo Yang, and Young-Soo Yoon. “Shrinkage Characteristics of High-Strength Concrete for Large Underground Space Structures.” Tunneling and Underground Space Technology 25, no. 2 (March 2010): 108–113. doi:10.1016/j.tust.2009.09.007.
Rashad, Alaa M. “An Overview on Rheology, Mechanical Properties and Durability of High-Volume Slag Used as a Cement Replacement in Paste, Mortar and Concrete.” Construction and Building Materials 187 (October 2018): 89–117. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.07.150.
Palod, Richa, S.V. Deo, and G.D. Ramtekkar. “Effect on Mechanical Performance, Early Age Shrinkage and Electrical Resistivity of Ternary Blended Concrete Containing Blast Furnace Slag and Steel Slag.” Materials Today: Proceedings 32 (2020): 917–922. doi:10.1016/j.matpr.2020.04.747.
Chen, Tung-Tsan, Chien-Chih Wang, B.C. Benson Hsiung, and Her-Yung Wang. “Seven-Day Test Result Assessment of the Developed Strength in Composite Cement Mortar with Slag.” Construction and Building Materials 152 (October 2017): 587–597. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.07.001.
Valcuende, M., F. Benito, C. Parra, and I. Miñano. “Shrinkage of Self-Compacting Concrete Made with Blast Furnace Slag as Fine Aggregate.” Construction and Building Materials 76 (February 2015): 1–9. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.11.029.
Li, Yue, Junling Bao, and Yilin Guo. “The Relationship between Autogenous Shrinkage and Pore Structure of Cement Paste with Mineral Admixtures.” Construction and Building Materials 24, no. 10 (October 2010): 1855–1860. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.04.018.
Jensen, O.M., Hansen, P.E., "Autogenous deformation and change of the relative humidity in silica fume modified cement paste”. ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 93, (1996): 539–543.
Tazawa, Ei-ichi, and Shingo Miyazawa. “Influence of Cement and Admixture on Autogenous Shrinkage of Cement Paste.” Cement and Concrete Research 25, no. 2 (February 1995): 281–287. doi:10.1016/0008-8846(95)00010-0.
Song, H.W., Byun, K.J., Kim, S.H., Choi, D.H., "Early-age creep and shrinkage in Self-Compacting Concrete incorporating GGBFS," 2nd International Symposium on Self-Compacting Concrete, (2001): 413- 422.
Rashad, Alaa M. “A Synopsis Manual about Recycling Steel Slag as a Cementitious Material.” Journal of Materials Research and Technology 8, no. 5 (September 2019): 4940–4955. doi:10.1016/j.jmrt.2019.06.038.
Duan, Ping, Zhonghe Shui, Wei Chen, and Chunhua Shen. “Enhancing Microstructure and Durability of Concrete from Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag and Metakaolin as Cement Replacement Materials.” Journal of Materials Research and Technology 2, no. 1 (January 2013): 52–59. doi:10.1016/j.jmrt.2013.03.010.
Deboucha, Walid, Mohamed Nadjib Oudjit, Abderrazak Bouzid, and Larbi Belagraa. “Effect of Incorporating Blast Furnace Slag and Natural Pozzolana on Compressive Strength and Capillary Water Absorption of Concrete.” Procedia Engineering 108 (2015): 254–261. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2015.06.145.
Sharma, Rahul, and Rizwan A. Khan. “Influence of Copper Slag and Metakaolin on the Durability of Self Compacting Concrete.” Journal of Cleaner Production 171 (January 2018): 1171–1186. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.10.029.
Özbay, Erdoğan, Okan Karahan, Mohamed Lachemi, Khandaker M.A. Hossain, and Cengiz Duran Atis. “Dual Effectiveness of Freezing–thawing and Sulfate Attack on High-Volume Slag-Incorporated ECC.” Composites Part B: Engineering 45, no. 1 (February 2013): 1384–1390. doi:10.1016/j.compositesb.2012.07.038.
Bhushan Jindal, Bharat, Parveen Jangra, and Atul Garg. “Effects of Ultra-Fine Slag as Mineral Admixture on the Compressive Strength, Water Absorption and Permeability of Rice Husk Ash Based Geopolymer Concrete.” Materials Today: Proceedings 32 (2020): 871–877. doi:10.1016/j.matpr.2020.04.219.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2021 Said KENAI, Siham Hammat, Belkacem Menadi, Jamal Khatib, El-Hadj Kadri
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.