Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) Approach On Inappropriate Construction Equipment Delay Factors

B. Indhu, K. Yogeswari


The advancement of construction equipment is a trend in the construction industry, with numerous benefits. However, using inappropriate construction equipment causes delays in construction projects, affecting the firm's reputation. A number of research studies on overall delay have been conducted globally. Even so, there is a lack of research on construction delays caused by inappropriate construction equipment. The aim of this paper is to investigate the inappropriate construction equipment delay factors and their effects on the firm's reputation. Based on the issues identified in the focus group interviews and the literature survey, a questionnaire survey was conducted to assess the impact of these factors on the progress of Indian construction projects. The primary constraint was that all 300 responses were collected in person from construction professionals to avoid lethargic responses that could skew the results. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to determine the positive strength of each factor's relationship. A t-test was used to see if there was a significant difference between the respondents' firm categories. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to validate the effective relationship between the causes of delays due to inappropriate construction equipment and its impact on company's reputation. All of the factors examined by the SEM analysis evidenced that the inappropriate construction equipment factors are correlated among themselves and combined to impact the reputation of the company. Recommendations are made to overcome the inappropriate equipment delay factors.


Doi: 10.28991/cej-2021-03091717

Full Text: PDF


Inappropriate Equipment; Management; Inventory; Equipment Selection; Equipment Replacement; Construction Delay.


Mahamid, Ibrahim, Amund Bruland, and Nabil Dmaidi. “Causes of Delay in Road Construction Projects.” Journal of Management in Engineering 28, no. 3 (July 2012): 300–310. doi:10.1061/(asce)me.1943-5479.0000096.

Chan, Daniel W.M., and Mohan M. Kumaraswam. “Reasons for Delay in Civil Engineering Projects – the Case of Hong Kong.” HKIE Transactions 2, no. 3 (January 1995): 1–8. doi:10.1080/1023697x.1995.10667685.

Enshassi, Adnan, Sherif Mohamed, and Saleh Abushaban. “Factors Affecting The Performance Of Construction Projects In The Gaza Strip.” Journal Of Civil Engineering And Management 15, no. 3 (June 30, 2009): 269–280. doi:10.3846/1392-3730.2009.15.269-280.

Głuszak, Michał, and Agnieszka Leśniak. “Construction Delays in Clients Opinion – Multivariate Statistical Analysis.” Procedia Engineering 123 (2015): 182–189. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2015.10.075.

Abdul Kadir, M.R., W.P. Lee, M.S. Jaafar, S.M. Sapuan, and A.A.A. Ali. “Factors Affecting Construction Labour Productivity for Malaysian Residential Projects.” Structural Survey 23, no. 1 (February 2005): 42–54. doi:10.1108/02630800510586907.

Alaghbari, Wa’el, Mohd. Razali A. Kadir, Azizah Salim, and Ernawati. “The Significant Factors Causing Delay of Building Construction Projects in Malaysia.” Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management 14, no. 2 (March 6, 2007): 192–206. doi:10.1108/09699980710731308.

Gebrehiwet, Tsegay, and Hanbin Luo. “Analysis of Delay Impact on Construction Project Based on RII and Correlation Coefficient: Empirical Study.” Procedia Engineering 196 (2017): 366–374. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2017.07.212.

Gurcanli, G. Emre, Harun Turkoglu, and Senem Bilir. “Heavy Equipment Scheduling for Horizontal Construction Projects.” Procedia Engineering 182 (2017): 265–273. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2017.03.189.

Prasad, Kanika, Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas, and Shankar Chakraborty. “A Software Prototype for Material Handling Equipment Selection for Construction Sites.” Automation in Construction 57 (September 2015): 120–131. doi:10.1016/j.autcon.2015.06.001.

Sambasivan, Murali, T.J. Deepak, Ali Nasoor Salim, and Venishri Ponniah. “Analysis of Delays in Tanzanian Construction Industry.” Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management 24, no. 2 (March 20, 2017): 308–325. doi:10.1108/ecam-09-2015-0145.

Yang, Jyh-Bin, and Shen-Fen Ou. “Using Structural Equation Modeling to Analyze Relationships among Key Causes of Delay in Construction.” Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering 35, no. 4 (April 2008): 321–332. doi:10.1139/l07-101.

Jalili, Mohamad Hadi, and Martin Skitmore. “A Framework to Predict Time and Cost Risks Based on Project Factors.” Civil Engineering Journal 4, no. 11 (November 30, 2018): 2738. doi:10.28991/cej-03091195.

Jahr, Katrin, and André Borrmann. “Semi-Automated Site Equipment Selection and Configuration through Formal Knowledge Representation and Inference.” Advanced Engineering Informatics 38 (October 2018): 488–500. doi:10.1016/j.aei.2018.08.015.

Sweis, G., R. Sweis, A. Abu Hammad, and A. Shboul. “Delays in Construction Projects: The Case of Jordan.” International Journal of Project Management 26, no. 6 (August 2008): 665–674. doi:10.1016/j.ijproman.2007.09.009.

Temiz, I., and G. Calis. “Selection of Construction Equipment by Using Multi-Criteria Decision Making Methods.” Procedia Engineering 196 (2017): 286–293. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2017.07.201.

Tuskaeva, Zalina, and Gevork Aslanov. “Software Product Development for the Construction Equipment Selection.” Procedia Engineering 165 (2016): 1184–1191. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2016.11.837.

Kadry, Mohamed, Hesham Osman, and Maged Georgy. “Causes of Construction Delays in Countries with High Geopolitical Risks.” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 143, no. 2 (February 2017): 04016095. doi:10.1061/(asce)co.1943-7862.0001222.

Mahamid, Ibrahim. “Factors Contributing to Poor Performance in Construction Projects: Studies of Saudi Arabia.” Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering 12, no. 1 (January 2016): 27–38. doi:10.1080/14488388.2016.1243034.

Sharma S. C., Construction Equipment and Management, Sixth. Delhi: Khanna Book Publishing Co (P) Ltd., (1998).

Turrini, Laura, and Joern Meissner. “Spare Parts Inventory Management: New Evidence from Distribution Fitting.” European Journal of Operational Research 273, no. 1 (February 2019): 118–130. doi:10.1016/j.ejor.2017.09.039.

Doloi, Hemanta, Anil Sawhney, K.C. Iyer, and Sameer Rentala. “Analysing Factors Affecting Delays in Indian Construction Projects.” International Journal of Project Management 30, no. 4 (May 2012): 479–489. doi:10.1016/j.ijproman.2011.10.004.

Poppe, Joeri, Rob J.I. Basten, Robert N. Boute, and Marc Lambrecht. “Inventory Management Under Various Maintenance Policies. A Numerical Study in Close Collaboration with an OEM.” SSRN Electronic Journal (2016). doi:10.2139/ssrn.2873416.

Aziz, Remon F., and Asmaa A. Abdel-Hakam. “Exploring Delay Causes of Road Construction Projects in Egypt.” Alexandria Engineering Journal 55, no. 2 (June 2016): 1515–1539. doi:10.1016/j.aej.2016.03.006.

Santoso, Djoen San, and Sothy Soeng. “Analyzing Delays of Road Construction Projects in Cambodia: Causes and Effects.” Journal of Management in Engineering 32, no. 6 (November 2016): 05016020. doi:10.1061/(asce)me.1943-5479.0000467.

Lopes, Rodrigo S., Cristiano A.V. Cavalcante, and Marcelo H. Alencar. “Delay-Time Inspection Model with Dimensioning Maintenance Teams: A Study of a Company Leasing Construction Equipment.” Computers & Industrial Engineering 88 (October 2015): 341–349. doi:10.1016/j.cie.2015.07.00

Aziz, Remon Fayek. “Ranking of Delay Factors in Construction Projects after Egyptian Revolution.” Alexandria Engineering Journal 52, no. 3 (September 2013): 387–406. doi:10.1016/j.aej.2013.03.002.

Assaf, Sadi A., and Sadiq Al-Hejji. “Causes of Delay in Large Construction Projects.” International Journal of Project Management 24, no. 4 (May 2006): 349–357. doi:10.1016/j.ijproman.2005.11.010.

Oshungade, Oluwaseun O., and Deon Kruger. “A Comparative Study of Causes and Effects of Project Delays and Disruptions in Construction Projects in the South African Construction Industry.” Journal of Construction Engineering and Project Management 7, no. 1 (March 1, 2017): 13–25. doi:10.6106/jcepm.2017.3.30.013.

Ghoddousi, Parviz, and Mohammad Reza Hosseini. “A Survey of the Factors Affecting the Productivity of Construction Projects in Iran.” Technological and Economic Development of Economy 18, no. 1 (April 10, 2012): 99–116. doi:10.3846/20294913.2012.661203.

Chen, Gui-Xiang, Ming Shan, Albert P. C. Chan, Xu Liu, and Yi-Qing Zhao. “Investigating the Causes of Delay in Grain Bin Construction Projects: The Case of China.” International Journal of Construction Management 19, no. 1 (July 27, 2017): 1–14. doi:10.1080/15623599.2017.1354514.

Gunduz, Murat, Yasemin Nielsen, and Mustafa Ozdemir. “Fuzzy Assessment Model to Estimate the Probability of Delay in Turkish Construction Projects.” Journal of Management in Engineering 31, no. 4 (July 2015): 04014055. doi:10.1061/(asce)me.1943-5479.0000261.

Al-Khalil, Mohammed I., and Mohammed A. Al-Ghafly. “Important Causes of Delay in Public Utility Projects in Saudi Arabia.” Construction Management and Economics 17, no. 5 (September 1999): 647–655. doi:10.1080/014461999371259.

Cheong Yong, Yee, and Nur Emma Mustaffa. “Analysis of Factors Critical to Construction Project Success in Malaysia.” Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management 19, no. 5 (August 31, 2012): 543–556. doi:10.1108/09699981211259612.

Oyegoke, Adekunle Sabitu, and Naseer Al Kiyumi. “The Causes, Impacts and Mitigations of Delay in Megaprojects in the Sultanate of Oman.” Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction 22, no. 3 (November 6, 2017): 286–302. doi:10.1108/jfmpc-11-2016-0052.

Kongchasing, Nutchapongpol, and Gritsada Sua-Iam. “The Major Causes of Construction Delays Identified Using the Delphi Technique: Perspectives of Contractors and Consultants in Thailand.” International Journal of Civil Engineering 19, no. 3 (October 10, 2020): 319–338. doi:10.1007/s40999-020-00575-8.

Kikwasi, Geraldine. “Causes and Effects of Delays and Disruptions in Construction Projects in Tanzania.” Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building - Conference Series 1, no. 2 (February 5, 2013): 52. doi:10.5130/ajceb-cs.v1i2.3166.

Niazi, Ghulam Abbas, and Noel Painting. “Significant Factors Causing Cost Overruns in the Construction Industry in Afghanistan.” Procedia Engineering 182 (2017): 510–517. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2017.03.145.

Mansfield, NR, OO Ugwu, and T Doran. “Causes of Delay and Cost Overruns in Nigerian Construction Projects.” International Journal of Project Management 12, no. 4 (November 1994): 254–260. doi:10.1016/0263-7863(94)90050-7.

Marzouk, Mohamed M., and Tarek I. El-Rasas. “Analyzing Delay Causes in Egyptian Construction Projects.” Journal of Advanced Research 5, no. 1 (January 2014): 49–55. doi:10.1016/j.jare.2012.11.005.

Mahdi, Ibrahim, and Ehab Soliman. “Significant and Top Ranked Delay Factors in Arabic Gulf Countries.” International Journal of Construction Management 21, no. 2 (November 22, 2018): 167–180. doi:10.1080/15623599.2018.1512029.

Chai, Chang Saar, and Aminah Md Yusof. “SEM Approach: Reclassifying Housing Delay in Malaysian Housing Industry.” Journal of Economics, Business and Management 3, no. 3 (2015): 364–369. doi:10.7763/joebm.2015.v3.211.

Black, William, and Barry J. Babin. “Multivariate Data Analysis: Its Approach, Evolution, and Impact.” The Great Facilitator (2019): 121–130. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-06031-2_16.

Amoatey, Charles Teye, Yaa Asabea Ameyaw, Ebenezer Adaku, and Samuel Famiyeh. “Analysing Delay Causes and Effects in Ghanaian State Housing Construction Projects.” Edited by Professor Rolf A. Lundin and Dr Kjell Tryggestad. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business 8, no. 1 (January 5, 2015): 198–214. doi:10.1108/ijmpb-04-2014-0035.

Bazanov, Vladimir Evgenievich. “Modeling of Management Processes of Construction Company Business for Increase in Its Competitive Stability.” Civil Engineering Journal 5, no. 1 (January 27, 2019): 246. doi:10.28991/cej-2019-03091241.

Fashina, Adebayo Adeboye, Mustafe Abdillahi Omar, Ahmed Abdullahi Sheikh, and Funke Folasade Fakunle. “Exploring the Significant Factors That Influence Delays in Construction Projects in Hargeisa.” Heliyon 7, no. 4 (April 2021): e06826. doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06826.

Yap, Jeffrey Boon Hui, Pei Ling Goay, Yoke Bee Woon, and Martin Skitmore. “Revisiting Critical Delay Factors for Construction: Analysing Projects in Malaysia.” Alexandria Engineering Journal 60, no. 1 (February 2021): 1717–1729. doi:10.1016/j.aej.2020.11.021.

Akogbe, Romuald-Kokou T. M., Xin Feng, and Jing Zhou. “Importance and Ranking Evaluation of Delay Factors for Development Construction Projects in Benin.” KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering 17, no. 6 (August 17, 2013): 1213–1222. doi:10.1007/s12205-013-0446-2.

Al Mohsin, Mohammed A. Chasib, and Ali Alnuaimi. "A Comparative Study on Causes of Delay Incompletion of Construction Projects in Oman." Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management 3, no. 1 (2013): 1-6.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-2021-03091717


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Indhu B

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.