Structural Vulnerability Assessment of Historical Buildings in Turkey

Kasim Korkmaz, Asuman Carhoglu


Structural Vulnerability assessment of historical buildings is very important to carry them to the future. Turkey is a rich country in terms of historic masterships mostly from Ottoman Empire, such as mosques, bathhouses, churches and aqueducts. Especially mosques are the common historical structures in turkey. Therefore, in the present study, structural vulnerability assessment of historical mosques in Turkey was carried out. One of the existing ones is considered as a sample building and structural vulnerability assessment was carried out on this building. The sample building was selected as Konak Mosque located in Izmir, Turkey. The mosque was structurally investigated through advanced approaches. The mosque, constructed in 1755 by Ottoman at very central location close by the clock tower, is little one decorated with blue tiles. The mosque is also nearby a historical bazaar where the main historical business stream line is located. Konak Mosque is one of these new styles in that age. It can be named as a signature historical building representing Islamic minimalist oriented architecture with its unique octagonal plan. In the present study, the building was modelled by using the Finite Element Modelling (FEM) software, SAP2000. Time history analyses were carried out using 10 different ground motion data. Displacements, base shear and stress values were interpreted and the results were displayed graphically and discussed. For probabilistic seismic risk assessment, fragility analyses were also carried out and the fragility curve and surface were sketched for the mosque. Saddle point was determined on the fragility surface.


Historical Masonry Buildings; Konak Mosque; Time History Analysis; Probabilistic Seismic Risk Assessment.


Erdil B. and Okuyucu D., Seismic performance evaluation of Adilcevaz Pasha (Tugrul bey) mosque, WCCE-ECCE-TCCE Joint Conference 2, Seismic protection of cultural heritage, October 31- November 1, Antalya, Turkey, 2011.

Ilerisoy Z. Y., Soyluk A., impact of shallow earthquakes on the Sehzade Mehmet Mosque, Gradevinar 9, p. 735-740: (2012).

Alvarenga, Análise teórico-experimental deestruturas compostas de pórticos de aço preenchidos com alvenaria de concreto celular autoclavado, PhD Thesis, University of São Paulo, São Carlos, 2002.

ÖZEN, GARİP ÖNDER. "Comparison of elastic and inelastic behavior of historic masonry structures at the low load levels." PhD diss., MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, 2006.

Lourenço, Paulo B. "Computations on historic masonry structures." Progress in Structural Engineering and Materials 4, no. 3 (2002): 301-319.

Unay, AI., Seismic Resistance of Historical Buildings METU, Architecture, Ankara, Turkey, 2002 [In Turkish].

Roca, P., J. L. González, E. Oñate, and P. B. Lourenço. "Experimental and numerical issues in the modelling of the mechanical behaviour of masonry." Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions II. CIMNE, Barcelona, pp. 57-91: (1998).

Tuna, S.C. and Altun S., Simulation of ground motions for the city of izmir, 15 WCEE, Lisboa, 2012.

Lutro, T., Local site effects in İzmir, Turkey - combining empirical and analytical approaches, Master thesis, Department of Earth Science University of Bergen, 2011.

Deniz, Aykut, Kasim Armagan Korkmaz, and Ayhan Irfanoglu. "Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for İzmir, Turkey." Pure and applied geophysics 167, no. 12 (2010): 1475-1484.

Levantine Heritage Foundation, Unesco, 2016).

URL-1, 2016, Access date: Dec, 2016

Auto CAD 2007, 2006, Autodesk, Inc.

Habibullah and Wilson, SAP 2000 User Manual, Computer Program, Computers and Structures, Berkeley, USA, 1998.

Dogangun, Adem, and Halil Sezen. "Seismic vulnerability and preservation of historical masonry monumental structures." Earthquake and Structures 3, no. 1 (2012): 83-95.

PEER (2016) Earthquake data web page:

Field E.N.H., 2016, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) A Primer, Access date:4.23.2016.

Kirçil, Murat Serdar, and Zekeriya Polat. "Fragility analysis of mid-rise R/C frame buildings." Engineering Structures 28, no. 9 (2006): 1335-1345.

Yön, Burak, Mehmet Emin Öncü, and Yusuf Calayır. "Effects of seismic zones and local soil conditions on response of RC buildings." Građevinar 67, no. 06. (2015): 585-596.

Akkar, Sinan, Haluk Sucuoğlu, and Ahmet Yakut. "Displacement-based fragility functions for low-and mid-rise ordinary concrete buildings." Earthquake Spectra 21, no. 4 (2005): 901-927.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-2017-00000094


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Kasim Korkmaz, Asuman Carhoglu

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.