Urban Landscape Fragmentation as an Indicator of Urban Expansion Using Sentinel-2 Imageries

Nada Kadhim, Nabil T. Ismael, Nabil M. Kadhim


Rapid urbanization in some cities has led to the emergence of numerous subsidiary settlements around their primary cities. Due to this rapid urbanization and growth, there is a great demand for urban land, mostly for commercial, industrial, and residential uses. Urban green spaces and vegetation are at risk due to a large amount of urban land, as seen by a decline in connectivity and increased fragmentation, especially due to land conversion. However, the identification of the spatial and momentary variability in the clustering and fragmentation of vegetation patterns in urban settings has not made full use of local indicators of spatial distribution measurements, such as Baqubah, a city in Iraq. Since it is essential to measure the degree of fragmentation and evaluate urban expansion trajectories consistently, this study proposes a new approach to assessing the anticipated direction of urban extension, using the fragmentation indicator of built-up patterns in urban areas. Sentinel-2 data was used to map the fragmented urban centres and their future extent in the city at a single time point. The proposed method employs indices to capture the initial distribution of spatial patterns of vegetation cover and built-up areas. The main extracted land cover classes, landscape fragmentation performance, and surface density analysis were accomplished in ArcGIS. The results indicate that the entire built-up area in Baqubah has a high degree of fragmentation at 75%, and about 23% of the open space within the urban extent of the city. Two predicted trajectories of urban expansion were also revealed: one may follow the external road direction, while the other is multi-directional, commencing from the edges of the built-up area. The study concludes that the new method is useful for comprehending and assessing urban landscape fragmentation, as well as anticipating its path. This integrated approach to remote sensing and GIS can sufficiently and effectively determine priority urban regions for successful planning and management. In addition, our study's findings highlight the potential of the suggested strategy as a useful spatially explicit method for determining the spatial clustering and fragmentation of urban landscape patterns.


Doi: 10.28991/CEJ-2022-08-09-04

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Remote Sensing; GIS; Built-up Area; Urban Open Space; Expansion Trajectories; Surface Density; Indices.


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DOI: 10.28991/CEJ-2022-08-09-04


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