Using CRF Tool for Analyzing the Resilience of Cities

S. M. Al-Jawari, N. AbdulRazak Hasach Albasri, O. Jassim Al-Mosherefawi


The new sustainable development goals set by the UN include a goal of making cities inclusive, safe, sustainable, and resilient. Cities are growing at huge rates, and conditions of deteriorating QOL̛s are increasing in the form of poor access to services, and slums are remarkable, especially in the cities of the Middle East; hence, the research problem can arise from a lack of knowledge regarding the in determination of a way to assess the resilience of cities to develop mechanisms that will improve the quality of urban life. In this study, a tool called CRF has been applied for the assessment of the city's resilience principles of health and quality of life, economics and social, infrastructure and environmental systems, and the principles of governance and strategic leadership. The research aims to determine the efficiency of Kufa City in achieving the principles of resilience according to the CRF. The research is based on the descriptive analytical method. The research concluded that the city of Kufa achieves low levels of some indicators of resilience, especially on the imposition of security and the rule of law, transportation, and communications, and achieves reasonable rates of resilience regarding opportunities for creating a sustainable economy and achieving basic needs.


Doi: 10.28991/CEJ-2022-08-10-013

Full Text: PDF


Resilience of Cities; Resilience Framework; CRF; Urban Containment; Goals; Indicators; Al-Kufa; Al-Najaf.


Sarti, G., Amorosi, A., Rossi, V., Giacomelli, S., Fusani, L., & Potenza, M. (2010). Mapping of a highly compressible lagoonal horizon in the Holocene of the Arno coastal plain: Implications for proper urban planning in the city of Pisa. Rendiconti Online Societa Geologica Italiana, 11(11), 202–203.

Dear, M., & Scott, A. J. (2018). Urbanization and urban planning in capitalist society. Routledge, London, United Kingdom. doi:10.4324/9781351068000.

Levy, J. M. (2015). Contemporary Urban Planning (10th Ed.). Rouledge, New York, United States. doi:10.4324/9781315664453.

Yigitcanlar, T., & Teriman, S. (2014). Rethinking sustainable urban development: towards an integrated planning and development process. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 12(1), 341–352. doi:10.1007/s13762-013-0491-x.

Vale, L. J., & Campanella, T. J. (2005). The Resilient City: How Modern Cities recover from Disaster. Oxford University Press, New York, United States. doi:10.1093/oso/9780195175844.001.0001.

Jabareen, Y. (2013). Planning the resilient city: Concepts and strategies for coping with climate change and environmental risk. Cities, 31, 220–229. doi:10.1016/j.cities.2012.05.004.

Patel, R., & Nosal, L. (2016). Defining the Resilient City. Working Paper 6, United Nations University Centre for Policy Research, New York, United States.

Kutty, A. A., Wakjira, T. G., Kucukvar, M., Abdella, G. M., & Onat, N. C. (2022). Urban resilience and livability performance of European smart cities: A novel machine learning approach. Journal of Cleaner Production, 378, 134203. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2022.134203.

Newman, P., Beatley, T., & Boyer, H. (2017). Resilient cities: Overcoming fossil fuel dependence. Island Press, Washington, United States. doi:10.5822/978-1-61091-686-8.

Godschalk, D. R. (2003). Urban hazard mitigation: Creating resilient cities. Natural hazards review, 4(3), 136-143. doi:0.1061/(ASCE)1527-6988(2003)4:3(136).

Osman, T. (2021). A framework for cities and environmental resilience assessment of local governments. Cities, 118, 103372. doi:10.1016/j.cities.2021.103372.

Cardoso, M. A., Brito, R. S., Pereira, C., Gonzalez, A., Stevens, J., & Telhado, M. J. (2020). RAF Resilience Assessment Framework—A Tool to Support Cities’ Action Planning. Sustainability, 12(6), 2349. doi:10.3390/su12062349.

Gao, Y., & Wang, J. W. (2020). A resilience assessment framework for urban transportation systems. International Journal of Production Research, 59(7), 2177–2192. doi:10.1080/00207543.2020.1847339.

Ribeiro, P. J. G., & Pena Jardim Gonçalves, L. A. (2019). Urban resilience: A conceptual framework. Sustainable Cities and Society, 50, 101625. doi:10.1016/j.scs.2019.101625.

Narieswari, L., Sitorus, S. R. P., Hardjomidjojo, H., & Putri, E. I. K. (2019). Multi-dimensions urban resilience index for sustainable city. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 399(1), 012020. doi:10.1088/1755-1315/399/1/012020.

Argyroudis, S. A., Mitoulis, S. A., Hofer, L., Zanini, M. A., Tubaldi, E., & Frangopol, D. M. (2020). Resilience assessment framework for critical infrastructure in a multi-hazard environment: Case study on transport assets. Science of the Total Environment, 714, 136854. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.136854.

Kadihasanoglu, A. (2014). City Resilience Framework-City Resilience Index. American Red Cross. Available online: (accessed on August 2022).

Alrobaee, T., Al-Khafaji, A., & Al-Jawari, S. (2021). Measurement of physical environment characteristics for supporting transit-oriented development areas for the Kufa city–Iraq. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 12(1), 635-42.

Albasri, N. A. H., Al-Jawari, S. M., & Al-Mosherefawi, O. J. (2022). Prediction of Urban Spatial Changes Pattern Using Markov Chain. Civil Engineering Journal, 8(4), 710-722. doi:10.28991/CEJ-2022-08-04-07.

Jaber Z. A. (2015). Studying the changes in the urban land uses the city of Kufa - Using the GIS. University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/CEJ-2022-08-10-013


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Sara Mahmood Al-jawari, Naseer AbdulRazak Hasach Albasri, Osama Jassim Al-Mosherefawi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.