Analysis of Perceptions of Cycling Safety on Roads with Mixed Traffic Depending on Age, Gender, and Riding Experience

Mevlan Bixhaku, Gëzim Hoxha, Ramadan Duraku


Promoting cycling as a sustainable mode of transport necessitates understanding how individuals perceive the risks associated with bicycling based on age, gender, and riding experience. This study addresses a critical gap in the field of traffic by examining cyclists' perceptions of risk and safety on mixed-traffic roads. Despite increased interest in promoting cycling as a sustainable means of transportation, research on this topic is rare. Therefore, this study aims to contribute to existing literature on cyclist perceptions and cycling safety on roads with mixed traffic by examining the significant differences that may exist among age groups, genders, and individuals with varying riding experiences. The research focuses on roads lacking distinct bicycle paths and characterized by heterogeneous traffic streams. The study surveyed 120 cyclists on 13 roads in Pristina, the capital of Kosovo. Safety perception, measured using a Likert scale (1–5), was the dependent variable. Non-parametric methods, specifically the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests, were employed to analyze the data and test the hypotheses. The results revealed statistically significant differences between genders (Mann-Whitney test: U = 720; Z = -5.887, p = 0.000 < 0.05; r = -0.537), between groups with and without riding experience (Mann-Whitney test: U = 1240.5; Z = -2.59; p = 0.01; r = -0.236), and among age groups (Kruskal Wallis test: df = 4; p = 0.022 < 0.05). With Bonferroni correction, post hoc analysis using the Mann-Whitney test demonstrated significant differences (adjusted p < 0.0125) between at least two age groups. The median perception of general safety was at Likert scale 3 (average safety), while the perception of comfort was at level 2 (uncomfortable). These findings provide valuable insights for policymakers involved in urban planning, offering targeted strategies to enhance cycling safety based on age, gender, and riding experience. The findings highlight the complicated interaction of these elements and their impact on riders' safety perceptions. By understanding these dynamics, policymakers and urban planners may build targeted interventions and infrastructure upgrades to promote safer and more inclusive riding environments. This work adds to the field by shining light on the elements that influence cyclists' risk perception, eventually guiding methods for improving cycling safety and boosting the use of bicycles as a sustainable transportation choice.


Doi: 10.28991/CEJ-SP2023-09-011

Full Text: PDF


Cyclists’ Safety; Bicycle; Age; Gender; Experience; Mann-Whitney Test; Kruskal-Wallis Test.


Gatersleben, B., & Appleton, K. M. (2007). Contemplating cycling to work: Attitudes and perceptions in different stages of change. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 41(4), 302–312. doi:10.1016/j.tra.2006.09.002.

Ducheyne, F., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Spittaels, H., & Cardon, G. (2012). Individual, social and physical environmental correlates of “never” and “always” cycling to school among 10 to 12 year old children living within a 3.0 km distance from school. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 9(1), 142. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-9-142.

Heinen, E., Maat, K., & Van Wee, B. (2011). The role of attitudes toward characteristics of bicycle commuting on the choice to cycle to work over various distances. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 16(2), 102–109. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2010.08.010.

Fanaja, R. A., Pradana, M., Saputri, M. E., & Utami, D. G. (2023). Knowledge Management as Driver of Women’s Entrepreneurial Innovativeness. Journal of Human, Earth, and Future, 4(1), 1-9. doi:10.28991/HEF-2023-04-01-01.

Stinson, M. A., & Bhat, C. R. (2003). Commuter Bicyclist Route Choice: Analysis Using a Stated Preference Survey. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1828(1), 107–115. doi:10.3141/1828-13.

Bopp, M., Der Ananian, C., & Campbell, M. E. (2014). Differences in active commuting among younger and older adults. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 22(2), 199–211. doi:10.1123/JAPA.2012-0236.

1Gëzim, H., Ahmet, S., Ramë, L., & Xhevahir, B. (2018). Mathematical Model for Velocity Calculation of Three Types of Vehicles in the Case of Pedestrian Crash. Strojnícky Casopis – Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 68(3), 95–110. doi:10.2478/scjme-2018-0029.

Sorum, N. G., & Pal, D. (2022). Effect of Distracting Factors on Driving Performance: A Review. Civil Engineering Journal, 8(2), 382-405. doi:10.28991/CEJ-2022-08-02-014.

Krizek, K. J., & Roland, R. W. (2005). What is at the end of the road? Understanding discontinuities of on-street bicycle lanes in urban settings. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 10(1), 55–68. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2004.09.005.

Rivera Olsson, S., & Elldér, E. (2023). Are bicycle streets cyclist-friendly? Micro-environmental factors for improving perceived safety when cycling in mixed traffic. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 184, 107007. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2023.107007.

Pyrialakou, V. D., Gkartzonikas, C., Gatlin, J. D., & Gkritza, K. (2020). Perceptions of safety on a shared road: Driving, cycling, or walking near an autonomous vehicle. Journal of Safety Research, 72, 249–258. doi:10.1016/j.jsr.2019.12.017.

Branion-Calles, M., Nelson, T., Fuller, D., Gauvin, L., & Winters, M. (2019). Associations between individual characteristics, availability of bicycle infrastructure, and city-wide safety perceptions of bicycling: A cross-sectional survey of bicyclists in 6 Canadian and U.S. cities. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 123, 229–239. doi:10.1016/j.tra.2018.10.024.

von Stülpnagel, R., & Binnig, N. (2022). How safe do you feel? – A large-scale survey concerning the subjective safety associated with different kinds of cycling lanes. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 167, 106577. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2022.106577.

Hoxha, G., Fandaj, A., & Bajrami, X. (2023). Quality of Automatic Traffic Volume Counting by Cameras and Impact on the Qualitative Indicators of Traffic. Infrastructures, 8(3), 44. doi:10.3390/infrastructures8030044.

Graystone, M., Mitra, R., & Hess, P. M. (2022). Gendered perceptions of cycling safety and on-street bicycle infrastructure: Bridging the gap. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 105, 103237. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2022.103237.

Cubells, J., Miralles-Guasch, C., & Marquet, O. (2023). Gendered travel behaviour in micromobility? Travel speed and route choice through the lens of intersecting identities. Journal of Transport Geography, 106, 103502. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2022.103502.

Kenett, R. S., & Newbold, P. (1988). Statistics for Business and Economics. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series D (The Statistician), 37(1), 93. doi:10.2307/2348399.

Field, A. (2013) Discovering Statistics Using SPSS (3rd Ed.). Sage Publications Ltd., London, United Kingdom.

Gujarati, D. N. (2002). Basic Econometrics (4th Ed.). The McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, United States.

Osmani, M. (2015). Statistical Methods. Botimet Pegi, Tirane, Albania. (In Albanian).

Kosovo Agency of Statistics (KAS). (2012). Demographic data by municipalities 2011. Kosovo Agency of Statistics, Pristina, Kosovo.

Jones, E. G. (2004). Development of rural bicycle compatibility index. NDOR Research Project Number SPR-PL-1(038) P533, Transportation Research Centers, Nebraska Department of Roads, Lincoln, United States.

Ferenchak, N. N., & Marshall, W. E. (2020). Validation of Bicycle Level of Traffic Stress and Perceived Safety for Children. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2674(4), 397–406. doi:10.1177/0361198120909833.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/CEJ-SP2023-09-011


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Mevlan Bixhaku, Gezim Hoxha, Ramadan Duraku

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.