The behavior of Shear Connectors in Steel-Normal Concrete Composite Structure under Repeated Loads

Abdulamir A. Karim, Jawad Abd Matooq, Oday A. Abdulrazzaq, Fareed Hameed Majeed, Samoel Mahdi Saleh


In today's construction industry, the use of composite beams is becoming more and more important, particularly for long-span bridges that must withstand repeated loads from moving automobiles. This work investigates the behavior of composite beams through experimentation. Six push-out steel-concrete specimens are made and tested with various levels of static and repetitive loading applied. The specimens are made of rolled steel sections that are joined to concrete decks on both sides by stud shear connectors. Two approaches—one static and the other repeating—applied a push-out load to two sets of samples. One has a stud shear connector measuring 16 mm, and the other measures 25 mm. Three specimens were made for each group. To determine the final load, one specimen from each group underwent a static push-out test in the first stage. In the subsequent phase, repeated loads of 0-80% and 25-80% of the maximum static load were applied to the remaining ones. The analysis process measured the variation in slip between the concrete decks and the steel section over several load cycles. It was found that the recorded slip values at the ultimate load increased about four times just before the failure. The recorded values of the residual slip at the end of each load cycle decreased with the increase in load cycle numbers. Also, it was found that the values of the residual slip depend on the values of the lower and upper limits of the load level.


Doi: 10.28991/CEJ-2024-010-01-013

Full Text: PDF


Composite Beams; Push-Out Test; Repeated Load; Residual Strength; Load Slip Relation; Composite Construction.


Johnson, R. P. (2018). Composite Structures of Steel and Concrete. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, United States. doi:10.1002/9781119401353.

Jayas, B. S., & Hosain, M. U. (1988). Behaviour of Headed Studs in Composite Beams: Push-Out Tests. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 15(2), 240–253. doi:10.1139/l88-032.

Ellobody, E., & Young, B. (2006). Performance of shear connection in composite beams with profiled steel sheeting. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 62(7), 682–694. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2005.11.004.

Bonilla Rocha, J. D., Arrizabalaga, E. M., Quevedo, R. L., & Recarey Morfa, C. A. (2012). Behavior and strength of welded stud shear connectors in composite beam. Revista Facultad de Ingeniería Universidad de Antioquia, 63, 93–104. doi:10.17533/udea.redin.12489.

Hicks, S. J., & Smith, A. L. (2014). Stud Shear Connectors in Composite Beams that Support Slabs with Profiled Steel Sheeting. Structural Engineering International, 24(2), 246–253. doi:10.2749/101686614x13830790993122.

Albarram, A. (2019). Behaviour of Headed Stud Connectors in Composite Beams with Very Deep Profiled Sheeting. Ph.D. Thesis, University of East London, London, United Kingdom.

Shim, H. B., Chung, K. S., Jang, S. H., Park, S. J., & Lee, J. H. (2010). Push-out tests on shear studs in high strength concrete. 7th international conference on fracture mechanics of concrete and concrete structures (FraMCoS-7), 23-28 May, 2010, Jeju, Korea.

Bouchair, A., Bujnak, J., Duratna, P., & Lachal, A. (2012). Modeling of the steel-concrete push-out test. Procedia Engineering, 40, 102–107. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2012.07.063.

Qureshi, J., Lam, D., & Ye, J. (2011). Effect of shear connector spacing and layout on the shear connector capacity in composite beams. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 67(4), 706–719. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2010.11.009.

Jayanthi, V., & Umarani, C. (2018). Performance evaluation of different types of shear connectors in steel-concrete composite construction. Archives of Civil Engineering 64(2), 97–110. doi:10.2478/ace-2018-0019.

Choi, I. R., & Kim, C. S. (2021). Push-out tests on various steel anchors with partial-length welding in steel–concrete composite members. Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 11(1), 1–15. doi:10.3390/app11010105.

Arévalo, D., Hernández, L., Gómez, C., Velasteguí, G., Guaminga, E., Baquero, R., & Dibujés, R. (2021). Structural performance of steel angle shear connectors with different orientation. Case Studies in Construction Materials, 14, e00523. doi:10.1016/j.cscm.2021.e00523.

Saleh, S. M., & Majeed, F. H. (2022). Shear Strength of Headed Stud Connectors in Self-Compacting Concrete with Recycled Coarse Aggregate. Buildings, 12(5). doi:10.3390/buildings12050505.

Ibrahim, T. H., & Allawi, A. A. (2023). The Response of Reinforced Concrete Composite Beams Reinforced with Pultruded GFRP to Repeated Loads. Journal of Engineering, 29(1), 158–174. doi:10.31026/j.eng.2023.01.10.

Zhao, G. Y., Liu, W., Su, R., & Zhao, J. C. (2023). A Beam Finite Element Model Considering the Slip, Shear Lag, and Time-Dependent Effects of Steel–Concrete Composite Box Beams. Buildings, 13(1), 215. doi:10.3390/buildings13010215.

Zhao, G. Y., Zhu, L., Liu, W., Zhao, J. C., & Huo, J. X. (2023). Numerical Study on the Effect of Interface Dynamic Damage of Steel–Concrete Composite Beam Bridge Caused by High–Frequency Impact Load. Buildings, 13(2), 545. doi:10.3390/buildings13020545.

Bro, M., & Westberg, M. (2004). Influence of fatigue on headed stud connectors in composite bridges. Master Thesis, Lulea University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.

Lee, P. G., Shim, C. S., & Chang, S. P. (2005). Static and fatigue behavior of large stud shear connectors for steel-concrete composite bridges. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 61(9), 1270–1285. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2005.01.007.

Hanswille, G., Porsch, M., & Ustundag, C. (2007). Resistance of headed studs subjected to fatigue loading: Part I: Experimental study. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 63(4), 475-484. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2006.06.035.

Hanswille, G., Porsch, M., & Ustundag, C. (2007). Resistance of headed studs subjected to fatigue loading Part II: Analytical study. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 63(4), 485–493. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2006.06.036.

Azad, A. R. G., Mafipour, M. S., & Tatlari, S. (2018). Fatigue Behavior of Shear Connectors in Steel-Concrete Beams with Partial Interaction. 3rd International Conference on Steel & Structure, 11-12 December, 2018, Tehran, Iran.

Liang, X., Yi, X., Wang, B., & Liu, X. (2022). Slip behavior of stud connectors of steel-concrete composite beams in the whole process of fatigue loading. Structures, 44, 1607–1616. doi:10.1016/j.istruc.2022.08.104.

EN 1994-2. (2005). Design of composite steel and concrete structures – Part 2: General rules and rules for bridges. European Comittee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium.

ASTM C150/C150M. (2015). Standard Specification for Portland Cement. ASTM International, Pennsylvania, United States. doi:10.1520/C0150_C0150M-12.

ASTM C33/C33M-11a. (2013). Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates. ASTM International, Pennsylvania, United States. doi:10.1520/C0033_C0033M-11A.

ASTM C873/C873M. (2010). Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Concrete Cylinders Cast in Place in Cylindrical Molds. ASTM International, Pennsylvania, United States. doi:10.1520/C0873_C0873M-10.

ASTM C469/C469M-14. (2014). Standard Test Method for Static Modulus of Elasticity and Poisson’s Ratio of Concrete in Compression. ASTM International, Pennsylvania, United States. doi:10.1520/C0469_C0469M-14.

ASTM C496/C496M. (2011). Standard Test Method for Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens. ASTM International, Pennsylvania, United States. doi:10.1520/C0496_C0496M-17.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/CEJ-2024-010-01-013


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2024 Jawad Abd Matooq

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.