An Equivalent Truss Model for In-Plane Nonlinear Analysis of Unreinforced Masonry Walls
According to the importance of seismic evaluation of existing unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings, researchers have been interested in numerical modelling of these types of structures and their components. On the other hand, in seismic performance evaluation and retrofitting codes which are mostly based on Performance Based Seismic Design (PBSD), different analysis methods such as linear and nonlinear, static and dynamic analyses are employed. Therefore, simple equivalent frame models with lower computational cost are very useful for modelling and analysis of unreinforced masonry buildings. In this article, a simple equivalent truss model is proposed for modelling and analysis of an unreinforced masonry wall with sliding shear failure as the governing in-plane failure mode. The model is developed according to an analogy between the internal forces in a triangular truss and the Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria. Then, the proposed model is generalized for modelling and push over analysis of combinations of walls. Finally, the modelling procedure is applied for push over analysis of an unreinforced masonry wall consists of some piers and the push over curve of the wall is determined and discussed.
Tomasevic, M., Klemenc, I. “Seismic behavior of confined masonry walls.” Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 26 (1997): 1059–1071, DOI: 10.1002/(sici)1096-9845(199710)26:10<1059::aid-eqe694>3.3.co;2-d.
Wang, Q., Chai, Z., Huang, Y., Yang, Y., Zhang, Y. “Seismic shear capacity of brick masonry wall reinforced by GFRP.” Asian Journal of Civil Engineering, 7(9) (2006): 1059–1071, DOI:10.1002/eqe.4290211103.
Calderini, C., Cattari, S., Lagomarsino, S. “In-plane strength of unreinforced masonry piers.” Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 38 (2010): 541–559, DOI: 10.1002/eqe.860.
Maheri, M.R., Motielahi, F., Najafgholipour, M.A. “The effects of pre and post construction moisture condition on the in-plane and out-of-plane strengths of brick walls.” Materials and Structures, 44(2) (2011): 541–559, DOI: 10.1617/s11527-010-9648-y.
Najafgholipour, M.A., Maheri, M.R., Lourenço, P.B., “Capacity interaction in brick masonry under simultaneous in-plane and out-of-plane loads.” Construction and Building Materials, 38 (2013): 619–626, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.08.032.
Derakhshan, H., Lucas, W., Visintin, P., Griffith, M.C. “Out-of-plane Strength of Existing Two-way Spanning Solid and Cavity Unreinforced Masonry Walls.” Structures, 13 (2018): 88–101. DOI: 10.1016/j.istruc.2017.11.002.
Derakhshan, H., Nakamura, Y., Ingham, J.M., Griffith, M.C. “Simulation of shake table tests on out-of-plane masonry buildings. Part (I): Displacement-based approach using simple failure mechanisms.” International Journal of Architectural Heritage, 11(1) (2017): 72–78. DOI: 10.1080/15583058.2016.1237590.
Lourenco, P.B., Rots, J.G. “Multisurface Interface Model for Analysis of Masonry Structures.” Journal of Engineering Mechanics (ASCE), 123(7) (1997): 660–668, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9399(1997)123:7(660)
Gabor, A., Ferrier, E., Jacquelin, E., Hamelin, P. “Analysis and modelling of the in-plane shear behavior of hollow brick masonry panels. Construction and Building Materials, 20 (2006): 308–321, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.01.032.
Lourenco, P.B., Borst, R.D., Rots, J.G. “A plane stress softening plasticity model for orthotropic materials.” International Journal of Numerical methods in Engineering, 40 (1997): 4033–4057, DOI: 10.1002/(sici)1097-0207(19971115)40:21<4033::aid-nme248>3.0.co;2-0.
Lourenco, P.B. “Anisotropic softening model for masonry plates and shells.” Journal of Structural Engineering (ASCE), 126(9) (2000): 1008–1016, DOI: 10.1061/(asce)0733-9445(2000)126:9(1008).
Roca, P., Molins C., Mari A.R. “Strength capacity of masonry wall structures by the equivalent frame method.” Journal of Structural Engineering (ASCE), 135 (2005): 1601-1610, DOI: 10.1061/(asce)0733-9445(2005)131:10(1601).
Roca, P. “Assessment of masonry shear-walls by simple equilibrium models.” Construction and Building Materials, 20 (2006): 229-238, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.08.023.
Pasticier, L., Amadio, C., Fragiacomo, M. “Non-linear seismic analysis and vulnerability evaluation of a masonry building by means of the SAP2000 V.10 code.” Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 37 (2008): 467-485, DOI: 10.1002/eqe.770.
Chen, S.Y., Moon, F.L., Yi, T. “A macroelement for the nonlinear analysis of in-plane unreinforced masonry piers.” Engineering Structures, 30 (2008): 2242-2252, DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2007.12.001.
Belmouden, Y., Lestuzzi, P. “An equivalent frame model for seismic analysis of masonry and reinforced concrete buildings.” Construction and Building Materials, 23 (2009): 40-53, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2007.10.023.
Tena-Colunga, A., Cano-Licona, J. “Simplified method for the seismic analysis of masonry shear-wall buildings.” Journal of Structural Engineering (ASCE), 136 (2010): 511-520, DOI: 10.1061/(asce)st.1943-541x.0000142.
Sabatino, R., Rizzano, G. “A Simplified Approach for the Seismic Analysis of Masonry Structures.” The Open Construction and Building Journal, 5 (2011): 97-104, DOI: 10.2174/1874836801105010097.
Lagomarsino, S., Penna, A., Galasco, A., Cattari, S. “TREMURI program: An equivalent frame model for the nonlinear seismic analysis of masonry buildings.” Engineering Structures, 55 (2013): 1787-1792, DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2013.08.002.
Foraboschi, P., Vanin, A. “Non-linear static analysis of masonry buildings based on a strut-and-tie modeling.” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 55 (2013): 44-58, DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2013.08.005.
Salmanpour, A.H., Mojsilovic, N., Schwartz J. “Deformation capacity of unreinforced masonry walls subjected to in-plane loading: a state-of-the-art review.” International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering, 55 (2013): 5-22, DOI: 10.1186/2008-6695-5-22.
Addessi, D., Liberatore, D., Masiani, R., “Force-Based Beam Finite Element (FE) for the Pushover Analysis of Masonry Buildings.” International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration, 9(3) (2015): 231-243, DOI: 10.1080/15583058.2013.768309.
Foti, D. A new experimental approach to the pushover analysis of masonry buildings. Computers and Structures, 147 (2014): 165-171, DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruc.2014.09.014.
Prestandard and commentary for the seismic rehabilitation of buildings, FEMA356 (2000), Federal Emergency Management Agency.
EN, BS. "1-1: 2005 Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures—General rules for reinforced and unreinforced masonry structures." (1996): 1-1.
Akhaveissy, A.H. “Finite element nonlinear analysis of high-rise unreinforced masonry building.” Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures, 1 (2012): 1-22, DOI: 10.1590/S1679-78252012000500002.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2018 mohammadamir najafgholipour
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.