Spent Bleaching Earth Recovery of Used Motor-Oil Refinery

Mohammad Reza Sabour, Mahsa Shahi

Abstract


Bleaching earth refers to natural or activated clay which has the capacity to adsorb colored materials and other impurities during oil purification processes. This research utilized the spent bleaching earth (SBE) in used motor oil purification process via thermal remediation (650 ˚C) and acid washing methods (1 M HCl). Then, the activated spent bleaching earth (ASBE) was characterized. The results obtained from the BET analysis show the specific surface area and pore volume of the ASBE, activated virgin bleaching earth (AVBE) and virgin bleaching earth (VBE). These parameters are 100.38 m2g-1 and 0.23 cm3g-1 for the activated spent bleaching earth, 100.82 m2g-1 and 0.22 cm3g-1 for the activated virgin bleaching earth and 83.34 m2g-1 and 0.19 cm3g-1 for the virgin bleaching earth. The BJH analysis indicates that SBE activation increases mesopores in ASBE. In addition, results obtained from the XRD and FTIR tests illustrate that activation of SBE does not affect the physical and chemical properties of montmorillonite clay. Furthermore, SEM observations indicate surface morphology improvement in ASBE. Hence, activation of earth enhances its adsorption efficiency in comparison with virgin bleaching earth.


Keywords


Spent Bleaching Earth; Activated Earth; Remediation; Activation; Analysis Methods.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Shahi, M., Sabour, M.R., Amiri, A. and Ghasemnezhad, M., “Cleaning spent bleaching clay through using solvent extraction method and RSM statistical approach”. Cumhuriyet Science Journal, 36(7), (2015): pp.23-40. DOI: 10.17776/csj.66920.

Hussin, F., Aroua, M.K. and Daud, W.M.A.W., “Textural characteristics, surface chemistry and activation of bleaching earth: A review”. Chemical Engineering Journal, 170(1), (2011): pp.90-106. DOI:10.1016/j.cej.2011.03.065.

Didi, M.A., Makhoukhi, B., Azzouz, A. and Villemin, D., “Colza oil bleaching through optimized acid activation of bentonite: A comparative study”. Applied Clay Science, 42(3), (2009): pp.336-344. DOI: 10.1016/j.clay.2008.03.014.

Sabah, E., Cinar, M. and Celik, M.S., “Decolorization of vegetable oils: adsorption mechanism of β-carotene on acid-activated sepiolite”. Food Chemistry, 100(4), (2007): pp.1661-1668. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.12.052.

Lee, C.G., Seng, C.E. and Liew, K.Y., “Solvent efficiency for oil extraction from spent bleaching clay”. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 77(11), (2000): pp.1219-1223. DOI: 10.1007/s11746-000-0190-6.

Pollard, S.J., Sollars, C.J. and Perry, R., “The reuse of spent bleaching earth: a feasibility study in waste minimization for the edible oil industry”. Bioresource Technology, 45(1), (1993): pp.53-58. DOI: 10.1016/0960-8524(93)90143-y.

Mohammadnejad, M., Ghazvini, M., Mahlia, T.M.I. and Andriyana, A., “A review on energy scenario and sustainable energy in Iran”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(9), (2011): pp.4652-4658. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2011.07.087.

Botas, J. A., Moreno, J., Espada, J. J., Serrano, D. P., and Dufour, J., “Recycling of used lubricating oil: Evaluation of environmental and energy performance by LCA”. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 125, (2017): 315-323. DOI: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.07.010.

Awaja, F. and Pavel, D., “Design Aspects of Used Lubricating Oil Re-Refining”. Elsevier, Netherlands, (2006). DOI: 10.1016/b978-044452228-3/50001-7.

Yang, Y., Fu, T., Bao, W., and Xie, G. H., “Life cycle analysis of greenhouse gas and PM 2.5 emissions from restaurant waste oil used for biodiesel production in China”. Bio-Energy Research, 10(1), (2017): pp. 199-207. DOI: 10.1007/s12155-016-9792-5.

Shahi, M., Sabour, M.R. and Dezvareh, G.A., “Reactive dye extraction utilizing regenerated bleaching earth”. Global Journal of Environmental Science and Management, 3(3), (2017): pp.299-310. DOI: 10.22034/gjesm.2017.03.03.007.

Nursulihatimarsyila, A. W. ,Cheah, K.Y. , Chuah, T.G. , Siew, W.L. and Choong, T. S.Y. , “Deoiling and regeneration efficiencies of spent bleaching clay”. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 7(3), (2010): pp.434-437. DOI: 10.3844/ajassp.2010.434.437.

Adams, J.M., “Synthetic organic chemistry using pillared, cation-exchanged and acid-treated montmorillonite catalysts - a review”. Applied Clay Science, 2(4), (1987): pp.309-342. DOI: 10.1002/chin.198812379.

Yildiz N., Aktas Z. and Calimi A., “Sulphuric acid activation of a calcium bentonite”. Particulate Science and Technology. 22(1), (2004): pp.21–33. DOI: 10.1080/02726350490422392.

Meesuk, L. and Vorasith, N., “The use of bentonite to remove dark colour in repeatingly used palm oil”. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A, 41(6), (2006): pp.1189-1200. DOI: 10.1080/10934520600623083.

Noyan, H., Önal, M. and Sarıkaya, Y., “The effect of sulphuric acid activation on the crystallinity, surface area, porosity, surface acidity, and bleaching power of a bentonite”. Food Chemistry, 105(1), (2007): pp.156-163. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.03.060.

Sarioğlan, Ş., Yüzer, H. and Koral, M., “Acid activation and bleaching performance of Turkish (somas) bentonite in crude soybean oil”. Particulate Science and Technology, 28(4), (2010): pp.298-308. DOI: 10.1080/02726351.2010.496296.

Mana, M., Ouali, M.S., De Menorval, L.C., Zajac, J.J. and Charnay, C., “Regeneration of spent bleaching earth by treatment with cethyltrimethylammonium bromide for application in elimination of acid dye”. Chemical Engineering Journal, 174(1), (2011): pp.275-280. DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2011.09.026.

Emam, E. A. and Shoaib; A. M., “Re-refining of used lube oil, I- by solvent extraction and vacuum distillation followed by hydrotreating”. Journal Petroleum & Coal ,55 (3), (2013): pp. 179-187. DOI:10.21608/ejchem.2015.1010.

Meziti, C. and Boukerroui, A., “Regeneration of a solid waste from an edible oil refinery”. Ceramics International, 37(6), (2011): pp.1953-1957. DOI: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2011.02.016.

Loh, S. K., Cheong, K. Y., and Salimon, J., “Surface-active physicochemical characteristics of spent bleaching earth on soil-plant interaction and water-nutrient uptake: A review”. Applied Clay Science, 140, (2017): pp.59-65. DOI: 10.1016/j.clay.2017.01.024.

Al-zahrani, A. A. and Alhamed, Y. A., “Oil removal from spent bleaching earth by solvent extraction”. Journal of Environmental and Health, 35(9), (2000): pp.1577-1590. DOI: 10.1080/10934520009377056.

Boukerroui, A., Belhocine, L., and Ferroudj, S., “Regeneration and reuse waste from an edible oil refinery”. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, (2017): pp.1-8. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-9971-8.

Komadel, P. and Madejová, J., “Acid activation of clay minerals”. Handbook of Clay Science, (2013): pp.385-408. DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-08-098258-8.00013-4.

Tan, Y.A., Kuntom, A., Lee, C.K. and Low, K.S., “Comparative evaluation of palm oil color measurement using a prototype palm oil colorimeter”. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 81(8), (2004): pp.733-736. DOI: 10.1007/s11746-004-0970-z.

Xin, X., Si, W., Yao, Z., Feng, R., Du, B., Yan, L. and Wei, Q., “Adsorption of benzoic acid from aqueous solution by three kinds of modified bentonites”. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 359(2), (2011): pp.499-504. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2011.04.044.

Tabak, A., Yilmaz, N., Eren, E., Caglar, B., Afsin, B. and Sarihan, A., “Structural analysis of naproxen-intercalated bentonite (Unye)”. Chemical Engineering Journal, 174(1), (2011): pp.281-288. DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2011.09.027.

Lee, C., Lee, K., Choi, H. and Choi, H.P., “Characteristics of thermally-enhanced bentonite grouts for geothermal heat exchanger in South Korea”. Science in China Series E: Technological Sciences, 53(1), (2010): pp.123-128. DOI: 10.1007/s11431-009-0413-9.

Huang, H., Yi, D., Lu, Y., Wu, X., Bai, Y., Meng, X. and Shi, L., “Study on the adsorption behaviour and mechanism of dimethyl sulfide on silver modified bentonite by in situ FTIR and temperature-programmed desorption”. Chemical Engineering Journal, 225, (2013): pp.447-455. DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2013.04.018.

Wang, Q., Cui, Y.J., Tang, A.M., Barnichon, J.D., Saba, S. and Ye, W.M., “Hydraulic conductivity and microstructure changes of compacted bentonite/sand mixture during hydration”. Engineering Geology, 164, (2013): pp.67-76. DOI: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2013.06.013.

Önal, M., “Swelling and cation exchange capacity relationship for the samples obtained from a bentonite by acid activations and heat treatments”. Applied Clay Science, 37(1), (2007): pp.74-80. DOI: 10.1016/j.clay.2006.12.004.

Meziti, C. and Boukerroui, A., “Regeneration of a solid waste from an edible oil refinery”. Ceramics International, 37(6), (2011): pp.1953-1957. DOI: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2011.02.016.

Zdravkov, B., Čermák, J., Šefara, M. and Janků, J., “Pore classification in the characterization of porous materials: A perspective”. Open Chemistry, 5(2), (2007): pp.385-395. DOI: 10.2478/s11532-007-0039-3.

Caglar, B., Afsin, B., Tabak, A. and Eren, E., “Characterization of the cation-exchanged bentonite by XRPD, ATR, DTA/TG analyses and BET measurement”. Chemical Engineering Journal, 149(1), (2009): pp.242-248. DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2008.10.028.

Leofanti, G., Padovan, M., Tozzola, G. and Venturelli, B., “Surface area and pore texture of catalysts”. Catalysis Today, 41(1), (1998): pp.207-219. DOI: 10.1016/s0920-5861(98)00050-9.

Hayati Ashtiani, M., “Characterization of nano porous bentonite (montmorillonite) particles using FTIR ,BET and BJH analyses”. Particle & Particle Systems Characterization, 28(34), (2011): pp.71-76. DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201100030.

Carlson, L., Karnland, O., Oversby, V.M., Rance, A.P., Smart, N.R., Snellman, M., Vähänen, M. and Werme, L.O., “Experimental studies of the interactions between anaerobically corroding iron and bentonite”. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 32(1), (2007):pp.334-345. DOI: 10.1016/j.pce.2005.12.009.

Invernizzi, C., Daveri, A., Vagnini, M., and Malagodi, M., “Non-invasive identification of organic materials in historical stringed musical instruments by reflection infrared spectroscopy: a methodological approach”. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry, 409(13), (2017): pp. 3281-3288. DOI: 10.1007/s00216-017-0296-8.

Tsai, W.T., Chen, H.P., Hsieh, M.F., Sun, H.F. and Chien, S.F., “Regeneration of spent bleaching earth by pyrolysis in a rotary furnace”. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 63(1), (2002):pp.157-170. DOI: 10.1016/s0165-2370(01)00150-4.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.28991/cej-0309116

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.