Evaluation of Carbon Aerogel Manufacturing Process in Order to Desalination of Saline and Brackish Water in Laboratory Scale

Mohamadreza Massoudinejad, Yalda Hashempour, Hamed Mohammad


Carbon aerogel its fabrication and characterization and its uses in this process were studied for desalinating of saline and brackish water. The carbon aerogel manufacturing process involves the polymerization and pyrolysis of the mixture of resorcinol and formaldehyde. Carbon aerogels were analyzed using BET, BJH, and T-plot after construction. The effect of various parameters (including the influent salt concentration, the intensity of electric current flow, the distance between the electrodes and pH) on salt adsorption were studied. Analysis of BET/BJH shown that the surface of aerogel was 677.8 m2/g. much of porosity in the samples of carbon aerogel were between 1-2 nm, namely micro-pour and a similar level 0f 456 m2/gr is dedicated to micro-pour, with a correlation coefficient (r) equal to 94.5. According to the results, it seems that carbon aerogel electrodes have a good structure in desalination of brackish and saline water.


Carbon Aero Gel; Desalination; Saline and Brackish Water.


W.H.O. "Desalination for safe water supply: guidance for the health and environmental aspects applicable to desalination" Geneva, Switzerland: Public Health and the Environment World Health Organization (2007).

J.E. Miller. "Review of water resources and desalination technologies" Sandia national labs unlimited release report SAND-2003-0800 (2003).

Y. Junjie, S. Shufeng, W. Jinhua, L. Jiping. "Improvement of a multi-stage flash seawater desalination system for cogeneration power plants" Desalination 217 (2007): 191-202. 10.1016/j.desal.2007.02.016.

J. Yu, J. Qin, K.A. Kekre, B. Viswanath, G. Tao, H. Seah. "Impact of operating conditions on performance of capacitive deionisation for reverse osmosis brine recovery" Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination 4 (2014): 59-64. 10.2166/wrd.2013.008.

K.L. Benko, J.E. Drewes. "Produced water in the Western United States: geographical distribution, occurrence, and composition" Environmental Engineering Science 25 (2008): 239-246. 10.1089/ees.2007.0026.

W. Wang, M. Esparra, H. Liu, Y. Xie. "Application of forward osmosis in reusing the brackish concentrate produced in reverse osmosis plants with secondary treated wastewater as feed solution: a case study" Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination (2016): 533-543. 10.2166/wrd.2016.097.

K. Kadirvelu, J. Goel, C. Rajagopal. "Sorption of lead, mercury and cadmium ions in multi-component system using carbon aerogel as adsorbent" Journal of Hazardous Materials 153 (2008): 502-507. 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.08.082.

M. Ramezanianpour, M. Sivakumar. "Energy evaluation and treatment efficiency of vacuum membrane distillation for brackish water desalination" Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination 5 (2015): 119-131. 10.2166/wrd.2014.025.

U.S.DOE. A guide to practical management of produced water from onshore oil and gas operations in the United States Washington, DC: 2006.

K.-L. Yang, T.-Y. Ying, S. Yiacoumi, C. Tsouris, E.S. Vittoratos. "Electrosorption of ions from aqueous solutions by carbon aerogel: an electrical double-layer model" Langmuir 17 (2001): 1961-1969. 10.1021/la001527s.

R. Broséus, J. Cigana, B. Barbeau, C. Daines-Martinez, H. Suty. "Removal of total dissolved solids, nitrates and ammonium ions from drinking water using charge-barrier capacitive deionisation" Desalination 249 (2009): 217-223. 10.1016/j.desal.2008.12.048.

Y. Al-Wazzan, M. Safar, S. Ebrahim, N. Burney, A. Mesri. "Desalting of subsurface water using spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) system: technical and economic assessment" Desalination 143 (2002): 21-28. 10.1016/S0011-9164(02)00217-5.

L. Zou, G. Morris, D. Qi. "Using activated carbon electrode in electrosorptive deionisation of brackish water" Desalination 225 (2008): 329-340. 10.1016/j.desal.2007.07.014.

R. Pekala, J. Farmer, C. Alviso, T. Tran, S. Mayer, J. Miller, et al. "Carbon aerogels for electrochemical applications" Journal of non-crystalline solids 225 (1998): 74-80. 10.1016/S0022-3093(98)00011-8.

P. Xu, J.E. Drewes, D. Heil, G. Wang. "Treatment of brackish produced water using carbon aerogel-based capacitive deionization technology" Water Research 42 (2008): 2605-2617. 10.1016/j.watres.2008.01.011.

J. Farmer, D. Fix, G. Mack, R. Pekala, J. Poco. "Capacitive deionization of NH4ClO4 solutions with carbon aerogel electrodes" Journal of applied electrochemistry 26 (1996): 1007-1018. 10.1007/BF00242195.

T.-Y. Ying, K.-L. Yang, S. Yiacoumi, C. Tsouris. "Electrosorption of ions from aqueous solutions by nanostructured carbon aerogel" Journal of colloid and interface science 250 (2002): 18-27. 10.1006/jcis.2002.8314.

C.J. Gabelich, T.D. Tran, I.M. Suffet. "Electrosorption of inorganic salts from aqueous solution using carbon aerogels" Environmental science & technology 36 (2002): 3010-3019. 10.1021/es0112745.

J. Farmer, D. Fix, R. Pekala, J. Nielsen, A. Volpe. The Use of Carbon Aerogel Electrodes for Environmental Cleanup. DTIC Document, 1996.

J. Ma, L. Wang, F. Yu. "Water-enhanced performance in capacitive deionization for desalination based on graphene gel as electrode material" Electrochimica Acta (2018).

X. Quan, Z. Fu, L. Yuan, M. Zhong, R. Mi, X. Yang, et al. "Capacitive deionization of NaCl solutions with ambient pressure dried carbon aerogel microsphere electrodes" RSC Advances 7 (2017): 35875-35882.

H.-H. Jung, S.-W. Hwang, S.-H. Hyun, K.-H. Lee, G.-T. Kim. "Capacitive deionization characteristics of nanostructured carbon aerogel electrodes synthesized via ambient drying" Desalination 216 (2007): 377-385. 10.1016/j.desal.2006.11.023.

J.C. Farmer, D.V. Fix, G.V. Mack, R.W. Pekala, J.F. Poco, editors. Capacitive deionization with carbon aerogel electrodes: carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate. International SAMPE Technical Conference; 1995: SAMPE SOCIETY FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF MATERIAL.

M.E.I. Tchobanoglous. "Wastewater engineering: treatment, disposal, re-use" McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York, 2 nd Edition,(07 A MET) (1979): 938.

J.C. Farmer, D.V. Fix, G.V. Mack, R.W. Pekala, J.F. Poco. "Capacitive deionization of NaCl and NaNO3 solutions with carbon aerogel electrodes" Journal of the Electrochemical Society 143 (1996): 159-169. 10.1149/1.1836402.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-030980


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Mohamadreza Massoudinejad, Yalda Hashempour, Hamed Mohammad

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.