Selecting an Appropriate Express Railway Pavement System Using VIKOR Multi-Criteria Decision Making Model

Amin Nejati, Mehdi Ravanshadnia, Ehsan Sadeh


A gigantic evolution has been brought about in the railway transportation by the emergence of the expressways as the most efficient method of carrying passengers within short and medium interurban distances. Various types of expressway pavements have been offered during the recent years. A considerable amount of the repair and maintenance costs in railroad sector is allocated to the constituents forming the pavements. No thorough and precise research has been so far conducted on the railroad expressways featuring traffics with speeds over 250 km/h and the extant information have merely been trivial changes in the procedures existent for speeds below 200 km/h and these are not deemed of much use and applicability. Thus, the current research paper is devoted to the investigation and selection of express railways pavement system design using VIKOR method. The evaluations indicate that the commencement of the first high-speed train work in 1964 in Japan marked a turning point in the railroad passenger transportation in the world. The development of the high-speed railway transportation is enumerated as an important revolution helping the railroads retake their crucial role in passenger transportation in such a way that it is found overtaking the roadway and aerial transportation and even exposing some airlines to real crisis. The high-speed railroad is undergoing an intensive expansion worldwide and as a safe, sound and sustainable transportation system, it has well proved its role in the social and economic development of the nations.


Railroad; Express Train; Fuzzy Logic; VIKOR Method.


Barkhordari, M. A., & Falahi, F. “Types of Pavement without Railways Highlights and the Advantages and Disadvantages of Each and Provide an Excellent Pavement System in Iran.” 2th National Conference on Transport Infrastructure. Tehran.

Alimoradi, Z. et al. “Economic Analysis of High Speed Rail Costs at different speeds in order to implement optimum speed in Iran.” Applied Economic Studies in Iran (2015): 167-192.

Alimoradi, Z. et al. “Providing a Model for Gradually Increasing Garlic Speed in Railways Based on Scenario Design, Case Study of Tehran-Midway Route.” Transportation (2016): 481-498.

Javir, C., & De Rus, G. “Some Stylized Facts about High Speed Rail: the Review of HSR experiences around the world.” Transport Policy (2009): 19-28. doi:

Alexandersson, G. “Rail privatization and competitive tendering in Europe.” Built Environment (2009): 43-58. doi:

Sánchez, Borràs et al. “Rail access charges and the competitiveness of high speed trains.” Transport policy (2010): 102-109. doi:

Hernández, A., & Jiménez, J. L. “Does high-speed rail generate spillovers on local budgets?” Transport policy (2014): 211-219. doi:

Gattuso, D., & Restuccia, A. “A Tool for Railway Transport Cost Evaluation” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences (2014): 549-558. doi:

Adler, N et al. “High-speed rail and air transport competition: Game engineering as tool for cost-benefit analysis” Transportation Research Part B: Methodological (2010): 812-833. doi:

Levinson, D et al. “The full cost of intercity transportation-a comparison of high speed rail, air and highway transportation in California” (1996).

Ha, H. K et al. “Social efficiency benchmarking of Japanese domestic transport services: A comparison of rail and air” Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment (2011): 554-561. doi:

Fu, X et al. “Will China’s airline industry survive the entry of high-speed rail?” Research in Transportation Economics (2012): 554-561. doi:

Dobruszkes, F et al. “Does European high-speed rail affect the current level of air services? An EU-wide analysis” Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice (2014): 461-475. doi:

Pouryousef, H et al. “Review of capacity measurement methodologies; similarities and differences in the us and european railroads” Europe (2013): 39-40. doi:

Pouryousef, H et al. “Review of capacity measurement methodologies; similarities and differences in the us and european railroads” Europe (2013): 39-40. doi:

Vickerman, R et al. “Accessibility and Economic Development in Europe, Regional Studies” Taylor & Francis (1999): 1-15. doi:

Blanco, V et al. “Expanding the Spanish High-Speed Railway Network” Omega (2011): 138-150. doi:

Mario, De Luca et al. “High-Speed Rail Track Design Using Gis & Multi Criteria Analysis” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences (2012): 608-617. doi:

Monzón, A et al. “Efficiency and spatial equity impacts of high-speed rail extensions in urban areas” Cities (2013): 18-30. doi:

Brocker, J et al. “Assessing spatial equity and efficiency impacts of transport infrastructure projects” Transportation Research Part B: Methodological (2010): 795-811. doi:

Bachok, S et al. “Passenger's Aspiration towards Sustainable Public Transportation System: Kerian District, Perak, Malaysia” Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences (2014): 553-565. doi:

Buzási, A., & Csete, M. “Sustainability Indicators in Assessing Urban Transport Systems” Periodica Polytechnica Transportation Engineering (2015): 138-145. doi:

Rahmani, Z. A., & Hamidi, M. “Formation of the strategy of using speed rail trains in the Islamic Republic of Iran.” Transportation Research Journal (2014): 233-251.

Hamzeh Poor, K. “Presentation of a proposed system for ballasting in Iran.” Tehran: The Iranian Railways Research and Training Centre (2013): 1-3.

Fagan, N., Choosing the Right Track form for a High Speed Railway. Engine for growth (2014): doi:

Jandaghi Alaei, A. “Introduction to Tehran-Qom Expressway Two-Way Railway.” Tehran: The Iranian Railways Research and Training Centre (2008): 1-4.

Ghiyas Vand, S. “Technical specifications Ballast.” Tehran: The Iranian Railways Research and Training Centre (1999): 1-4.

Sadr Abadi, A. “An introduction to High Speed Railway, Frist Edition” (January 13, 2013).

Shri R.K. Yadav et al., Case Studies High Speed Rail System. (2007): Project Group.

Mundrey J.S. “Tracking for High-Speed Trains in India.” RITES Journal (2010): 1-16.

Maghsodi, F. “Evaluation of the Vicon method in comparison with other multi-criteria decision-making methods to verify the ability of the VIKOR to potentially find metal minerals.” Isfahan: Isfahan University of Technology (2015): 11-18.

Khalili, M., & Moharami, M. “Investigating the Effects of High Speed Rail Construction on Regional Development with Emphasis on the Role of Mid-Cities on the Study of Tehran-Mashhad Railway Route.” 1th National Conference on High Speed Rail in Iran. Tehran.

Keymanesh, M. R., & Ganji, R. “Specifications for high-speed trains.” 1th National Conference on High Speed Rail in Iran. Tehran.

Jacobini, F. B., Rail Transportation and Engineering Centre (Rail TEC). World Congress on Railway Research Sydney. Australia.

Gao, Yin., A 3D Dynamic Train-Track Interaction Model to Study Track performance Under Trains Running at Critical Speed. The Pennsylvania State University (2013).

Powrie, William and Priest, Jeffrey. Behaviour of ballasted track during high speed train passage. University of Southampton (2011).

Sami Adil, A. Amir Golroo., and Morteza Bagheri. “The Need for High Speed Rail with Sustainable Development Approach.” 3th International Conference on Recent Advances in Railway Engineering. Tehran.

Khalili, M., & Asadi, Sh. “Understanding the Mechanism of Fast Trains and Providing Solutions for Building a Successful System in Iran, Reviewing its History in the world.” 1th National Conference on High Speed Rail in Iran. Tehran.

Khabbaz, H., and B. Fatahi. "How to overcome geotechnical challenges in implementing high speed rail systems in Australia." Geotechnical Engineering Journal of the SEAGS & AGSSEA 45, no. 1 (2014).

Fadakar Masole, A., & Key Manesh, M. “Reviewing the costs of building and maintaining high-speed rail lines and comparing them with other modes of transport.” 2th International Conference on New research achievements in civil engineering, architecture and urban management. Tehran.

Barikani, Z. et al. “The feasibility of using steel slag ballast in the railways.” Nim Negah (2016): 2-3.

Sahebzamani, N., & Sahebzamani, P. “Smart Traversing on High Speed lines.” Nim Negah (2016): 3-4.

Davis, E. HS2: the Big Debate [lecture]. University of Birmingham (2014).

Jing, G. Q., Y. D. Zhou, Jian Lin, and J. Zhang. "Ballast flying mechanism and sensitivity factors analysis." International journal on smart sensing and intelligent systems 5, no. 4 (2012): 928-939.

Maghsodi, F., Evaluation of the Vicon method in comparison with other multi-criteria decision-making methods to verify the ability of the WIKER to potentially find metal minerals (2015): Iran: Isfahan University of Technology.

Engineers, P. C., Report on the selection of a railroad rail system in Tehran's metro line seven (2007): Iran: Sepasad Group.

Engineers, P. C., Report on Choosing the Tehran Metro Fencing System (2008): Iran: Sepasad Group.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-0309160


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Amin Nejati, Mehdi Ravanshadnia, Ehsan Sadeh

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.