Response of Skirted Foundations Resting on Dry Medium Dense Sand

Lujain Haider, Haider M. Mekkiyah


Experimental model tests were carried out to study the response of skirted foundation resting on dry sand.  The experiments were performed in a large soil container (1000  1000 mm in cross section and 800 mm in height).  Skirts with three different lengths (L) varied from 0.5D to 1.5D was attached to the edge of shallow circular foundations having three different diameters (D=60, 90 and 120 mm). Different parameters have been studied; these parameters involve skirt length, foundation size and skirt conditions. Skirts with open end and closed end were used. The relative density was kept constant and equals to 60%. The case of foundation without skirt (L=0) was initially tested and set as a reference for comparison purpose. From the results of experimental tests, it was found that the skirt modifies the load-settlement behaviour, increasing the load carrying capacity and reducing the foundation settlement. The results also indicate that load carrying capacity of skirted foundation increases with increase skirt length as well as foundation size. The results show that using skirt with closed end brought a considerable increase in load carrying capacity than that of open end.


Medium Dense Sand; Skirt; Load Carrying Capacity; Circular Foundation; Physical Model Tests; Dry.


El Wakil A Z, “Horizontal capacity of skirted circular shallow footings on sand.” Alexandria Engineering Journal 49(4) (2010): 379-385. doi:10.1016/j.aej.2010.07.003.

Pusadkar S S, and Bhatkar T, “Behaviour of raft foundation with vertical skirt using plaxis 2D.” International Journal of Engineering Research and Development 7(6) (2013):20-24.

Pachauria D K, Kumar R, and Jain P K “Behaviour of circular footing resting on skirted loose sand.” International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies III (IV) (2014):10-12.

Chandrawanshi S, Kumar R, Kaur D S, and Jain D P, “Effect of Skirt on Pressure Settlement Behaviour of Model Circular Footing in Medium Dense Sand.” International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology 5(2) (2014): 01-05.‏

Momeni E, Nazir R, Armaghani D J, and Sohaie H, “Bearing capacity of precast thin-walled foundation in sand.” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Geotechnical Engineering 168(6) (2015): 539-550. doi:10.1680/jgeen.14.00177.

Thakare S W, and Shukla A N, “Performance of Rectangular Skirted Footing Resting on Sand Bed Subjected to Lateral load.” International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology 5(2016): 11075- 11083. doi:10.15680/IJIRSET.2015.0506182.

Khatri V N, Debbarma S P, Dutta R K, and Mohanty B, “Pressure-settlement behavior of square and rectangular skirted footings resting on sand.” Geomechanics and Engineering 12(4) (2017): 689-705.‏ doi: 10.12989/gae.2017.12.4.689.

Nazier A K, “The bearing capacity of strip footings resting on sand adjacent to a slope with the presence of a horizontal flat rigid boundary.” M.Sc. thesis, Civil Engineering Department, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt 135 (1996).‏

Fretti C, Presti D L, and Pedroni S, “A pluvial deposition method to reconstitute well-graded sand specimens.” Geotechnical testing journal 18(2) (1995): 292-298.‏ doi: 10.1520/GTJ10330J.

Madabhushi S P G, Houghton N E, and Haigh S K “A new automatic sand pourer for model preparation at University of Cambridge.” In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Physical Modeling in Geotechnics – ICPMG’06 1 (2006): 217-222. doi:10.1201/noe0415415866.ch25.

Passalacqua R, “A Sand-Spreader used for reconstruction of granular soil models.” Soils and Foundations 31(2) (1991): 175- 180. doi:10.3208/sandf1972.31.2_175.

Hanna A M, “Experimental study on footings in layered soil.” Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division 107(8) (1981):1113-1127.‏

Butterfield R, and Andrawes K Z, “An air activated sand spreader for forming uniform sand beds.” Geotechnique 20 (1) (1970): 97-100.‏ doi:10.1680/geot.1970.20.1.97

Walker B P, and Whitaker T, “An apparatus for forming uniform beds of sand for model foundation tests.” Geotechnique 17 (2) (1967): 161-167.‏ doi:10.1680/geot.1968.18.3.392

Ali A M, “Effect of Scaling Factor on Pile Model Test Results.” M.Sc. Thesis, Building and Construction Engineering Department, University of Technology, Iraq (2012).

Turner J R, and Kulhawy F H, “Experimental Analysis of Drilled Foundations Subjected to Repeated Axial Loads under Drained Conditions.” Report EL-S32S, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California (1987).

Bell F G, “Engineering Treatment of Soils” Spon Press, London (1993). doi:10.1201/9781482288971.

Bowles J E, “Engineering Properties of soil and their measurement.” 2nd edition, McGraw-Hill International Book Company, Tokyo, Japan (1978).

Terzaghi K, “Theoretical Soil Mechanics.” Wiley, New York (1943). doi:10.1002/9780470172766.

Wood D M, “Geotechnical modeling”, 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2004).

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-0309167


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 lujain haider, Haider M. Mekkiyah

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.