Compressive Strength of Steel-Fiber Concrete with Artificial Lightweight Aggregate (ALWA)
In the last decade, there have been many innovations developed to replace the aggregate as material for concrete, particularly the coarse aggregate using the artificial lightweight aggregates a.k.a. ALWA. In the study, the main ingredient used to develop the artificial lightweight aggregates is the styrofoam. Styrofoam has a lightweight characteristic so that it can reduce the density of the concrete. If the density of the concrete can be lighter than the normal-weight concrete then the overall weight of the structure of a building will also be lighter. Thus, the shear force due to the earthquake will also be smaller so that the safety of the building becomes better. The styrofoam used was dissolved with the acetone solution and formed into granules in which the size resembled the coarse aggregate size of about 10 to 20 mm. The styrofoam which has been formed then dried up so that the texture becomes hard. In addition, steel fiber was also used as an added ingredient in concrete mixtures so that the concrete was highly resistant against cracking and was expected to increase the compressive strength of the concrete. ALWA compositions used to replace coarse aggregates were 0%, 15%, 50%, and 100%. While the composition of steel fiber used was 0%, 0.75%, and 1.5% of the total volume of the cylinder. The type of steel fiber used was hooked-end steel fiber with the diameter and the length of 0.8 mm and 60 mm, respectively. The results showed that the concrete with 15% styrofoam ALWA and 1.5% of steel fiber were able to produce optimum compressive strength by 28.5 MPa and the modulus of elasticity by 23,495 MPa. In addition, the use of Styrofoam ALWA as a substitution to the coarse aggregate can reduce the density of concrete as much as 5 to 35%.
Tavio; Kusuma, B.; and Suprobo, P., “Experimental Behavior of Concrete Columns Confined by Welded Wire Fabric as Transverse Reinforcement under Axial Compression,” ACI Structural Journal (May–June 2012): 109, 339–348. doi: 10.14359/51683747.
Pudjisuryadi, P.; Tavio; and Suprobo, P., “Performance of Square Reinforced Concrete Columns Externally Confined by Steel Angle Collars under Combined Axial and Lateral Load,” Procedia Engineering Elsevier (2015): 125, 1043-1049. doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2015.11.160.
Tavio; Suprobo, P.; and Kusuma, B., “Ductility of Confined Reinforced Concrete Columns with Welded Reinforcement Grids,” Excellence in Concrete Construction through Innovation–Proceedings of the International Conference on Concrete Construction (September 3, 2008). doi: 10.1201/9780203883440.ch51.
Srinivasan, K.; Mutharasi, M.; Vaishnavi, R.; Mohan, S.; and Logeswaran, V., “An Experimental Study on Manufacture of Artificial Aggregates Incorporating Flyash, Rice Husk Ash and Iron Ore Dust,” International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research (January 2016): 5(1), 163–168.
Harilal, B.; and Thomas, J., “Concrete Made using Cold Bonded Artificial Aggregate,” American Journal of Engineering Research (2013): 1, 20–25.
Fang-Chih, C.; Ming-Yu, L.; Shang-Lien, L.; and Jyh-Dong, L., “Artificial Aggregate Made from Waste Stone Sludge and Waste Silt,” Journal of Environmental Management (November 2010): 91(11), 2289–2294. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.06.011.
Jagadish, V.; and Jagadeesan, R., “A Feasibility Study on Artificial Aggregates using Waste Materials,” Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Technology (2015): 2(3), 292–296.
Ahmad, H. H.; and Tavio, “Experimental Study of Cold-Bonded Artificial Lightweight Aggregate Concrete,” AIP Conference Proceedings (2018): 1977, 030011-1–030011-8. doi: 10.1063/1.5042931.
Raharjo, D.; Subakti, A.; and Tavio, “Mixed Concrete Optimization Using Fly Ash, Silica Fume and Iron Slag on the SCC’s Compressive Strength,” Procedia Engineering Elsevier (2013): 54, 827–839. doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2013.03.076.
Kusuma, B.; Tavio; and Suprobo, P., “Axial Load Behavior of Concrete Columns with Welded Wire Fabric as Transverse Reinforcement,” Procedia Engineering Elsevier (2011): 14, 2039–2047. doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2011.07.256.
Tavio; Kusuma, B.; and Suprobo, P., “Investigation of Stress-Strain Models for Confinement of Concrete by Welded Wire Fabric,” Procedia Engineering Elsevier (2011): 14, 2031–2038. doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2011.07.255.
Agustiar; Tavio; Raka, I G. P.; and Anggraini, R., “Behavior of Concrete Columns Reinforced and Confined by High-Strength Steel Bars,” International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (July 2018): 9(7), 1249–1257.
Tavio; and Kusuma, B., “Stress-Strain Model for High-Strength Concrete Confined by Welded Wire Fabric,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering (January 2009): 21(1), 40–45. doi:10.1061/(asce)0899-1561(2009)21:1(40).
Tavio; Anggraini, R.; Raka, I G. P.; and Agustiar, “Tensile Strength/Yield Strength (TS/YS) Ratios of High-Strength Steel (HSS) Reinforcing Bars,” AIP Conference Proceedings (2018): 1964, 020036-1–020036-8. doi: 10.1063/1.5038318.
Anggraini, R.; Tavio; Raka, I G. P.; and Agustiar, “Stress-Strain Relationship of High-Strength Steel (HSS) Reinforcing Bars,” AIP Conference Proceedings (2018): 1964, 020025-1–020025-8. doi:10.1063/1.5038307.
Pudjisuryadi, P.; Tavio; and Suprobo, P., “Axial Compressive Behavior of Square Concrete Columns Externally Collared by Light Structural Steel Angle Sections,” International Journal of Applied Engineering Research (2016): 11(7), 4655–4666.
Astawa, M. D.; Raka, I G. P.; and Tavio, “Moment Contribution Capacity of Tendon Prestressed Partial on Concrete Beam-Column Joint Interior According to Provisions ACI 318-2008 Chapter 126.96.36.199(c) Due to Cyclic Lateral Loads,” MATEC Web of Conferences (2016): 58 (No. 04005), 1–8. doi: 10.1051/matecconf/20165804005.
Kekanovic, M.; Kukaras, D.; Ceh, A.; and Karaman, G., “Lightweight Concrete with Recycled Ground Expanded Polystyrene Aggregate,” Technical Gazette (2014): 21(2), 309–315.
Tamut, T.; Prabhu, R.; Venkataraman, K.; and Yaragal, S. C., “Partial Replacement of Coarse Aggregates by Expanded Polystyrene Beads in Concrete,” International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology (February 2014): 3(No. 2), 238–241. doi:10.15623/ijret.2014.0302040.
Ahmad, M. H.; Yee Loon, L.; Noor, N. M.; and Adnan, S. H., “Strength Development of Lightweight Styrofoam Concrete,” International Conference on Civil Engineering (May 2008).
Patel, D.; Kachhadia, U.; Shah, M.; and Shah, R., “Experimental Study on Lightweight Concrete with Styrofoam as a Replacement for Coarse Aggregate,” International Conference on Research and Innovations in Science, Engineering and Technology (2017): 1, 103–108. doi: 10.29007/fdhp.
Khalil, W.; Ahmed, H.; and Hussein, Z., “Behavior of High Performance Artificial Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Reinforced with Hybrid Fibers,” MATEC Web of Conferences (2018): 162(02001), 1–8. doi: 10.1051/matecconf/201816202001.
Vijay, P.; and Singh, S., “Physical and Mechanical Properties of Steel Fiber Reinforced Lightweight Aggregate Concrete using Fly Ash,” International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering (October 2014): 4(10), 596–601.
Hassanpour, M.; Shafigh, P.; and Mahmud, H. B., “Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Fiber Reinforcement–A Review,” Construction and Building Materials (2012): 37, 452–461. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.07.071.
Düzgün, O. A.; Gül, R.; and Aydin, A. C., “Effect of Steel Fibers on the Mechanical Properties of Natural Lightweight Aggregate Concrete,” Materials Letters (November 2005): 59(27), 3357–3363. doi: 10.1016/j.matlet.2005.05.071.
Abbas, W.; Khan, M. I.; and Mourad, S., “Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Steel ﬁber Reinforced Concrete with Different Strengths of Concrete,” Construction and Building Material (April 2018): 168, 556–569. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.02.164.
Sabariman, B.; Soehardjono, A.; Wisnumurti; Wibowo, A.; and Tavio, “Stress-Strain Behavior of Steel Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Cylinders Spirally Confined with Steel Bars,” Advances in Civil Engineering (Juni 2018): 2018, 1–8. doi: 10.1155/2018/6940532.
ASTM Subcommittee C01.10, “Standard Specification for Blended Hydraulic Cements (ASTM C595/C595M-18),” ASTM International (2018). doi:10.1520/C0595_C0595M-18.
ASTM Subcommittee C09.61, “Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens (ASTM C39/C39M-18),” ASTM International (2018). doi:10.1520/C0039_C0039M-18.
ASTM Subcommittee C09.21, “Standard Specification for Lightweight Aggregates for Structural Concrete (ASTM C330/C330M-17),” ASTM International (2017). doi: 10.1520/C0330_C0330M-17A.
ACI Committee 318, “Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318M-14) and Commentary (ACI 318RM-14), American Concrete Institute (2014): 519.
Tavio; and Parmo, “A Proposed Clamp System for Mechanical Connection of Reinforcing Steel Bars,” International Journal of Applied Engineering Research (November 19, 2016): 11(No. 11), 7355–7361. doi:10.31227/osf.io/96ngt.
Raka, I G. P.; Tavio; and Astawa, M. D., “State-of-the-Art Report on Partially-Prestressed Concrete Earthquake-Resistant Building Structures for Highly-Seismic Region,” Procedia Engineering Elsevier (2014): 95, 43–53. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2014.12.164.
Tavio; and Teng, S., “Effective Torsional Rigidity of Reinforced Concrete Members,” ACI Structural Journal (2004): 101 (No. 2), 252-260. doi: 10.14359/13023.
Tavio, “Interactive Mechanical Model for Shear Strength of Deep Beams,” Journal of Structural Engineering (May 2006): 132, (No. 5), 826 –827. doi:10.1061/(asce)0733-9445(2006)132:5(826).
Astawa, M. D.; Tavio; and Raka, I G. P., “Ductile Structure Framework of Earthquake Resistant of High-Rise Building on Exterior Beam-Column Joint with the Partial Prestressed Concrete Beam-Column Reinforced Concrete,” Procedia Engineering (2013): 54, 413-427. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2013.03.037.
Tavio; Suprobo, P.; and Kusuma, B., “Strength and Ductility Enhancement of Reinforced HSC Columns Confined with High-Strength Transverse Steel,” Proceedings of the Eleventh East Asia-Pacific Conference on Structural Engineering and Construction (EASEC-11), (November 2008), 350-351.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2018 Meity Wulandari
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.