Comparative Study on Breaking Strength of Burnt Clay Bricks Using Novel Based Completely Randomized Design (CRD)

Zahid Hussain, Shamshad Ali


The aim of this study is to present the results of breaking strength tests for burnt clay bricks from various historical deposits. The native clay bricks production technique is the known method of brick making, particularly in South Asian countries. Numerous studies have been conducted on hand-molded formed bricks. The clay bricks that were considered for the comparative study, were made from four different clays sources. Their breaking strength was determined using for examining the maximum load at failure and the effects were investigated subsequently. The basic objective of this experimental study was to compare the breaking strength of locally fired clay bricks using a novel based completely randomized design via a single factor with four levels of clay sources representing the factors. For this purpose, 24 brick samples were made from four different clay sources while the breaking strength of each sample was measured. Pairwise comparison trials, including Duncan’s multiple range, Newman–keuls, Fisher’s least and Tukey’s tests were conducted. Based on experimental investigations, the results revealed that using analysis of variance at 95% CI, the difference in breaking strength between clay source of Hyderabad (A) and Rawalpindi (B), followed by Kohat (C) and Peshawar (D) was significant and also the difference among the means of these clay courses was significant which clearly exposed that the clay site and chemical composition has a great impression of the breaking strength of the burnt bricks.


Breaking Strength of Burnt Clay Bricks; Experimental Design; Completely Randomized Design (CRD).


Abbas, Safeer, Muhammad A. Saleem, Syed M.S. Kazmi, and Muhammad J. Munir. “Production of Sustainable Clay Bricks Using Waste Fly Ash: Mechanical and Durability Properties.” Journal of Building Engineering 14 (November 2017): 7–14. doi:10.1016/j.jobe.2017.09.008.

Eliche-Quesada, D., J.A. Sandalio-Pérez, S. Martínez-Martínez, L. Pérez-Villarejo, and P.J. Sánchez-Soto. “Investigation of Use of Coal Fly Ash in Eco-Friendly Construction Materials: Fired Clay Bricks and Silica-Calcareous Non Fired Bricks.” Ceramics International 44, no. 4 (March 2018): 4400–4412. doi:10.1016/j.ceramint.2017.12.039.

Murmu, Anant L., and A. Patel. “Towards Sustainable Bricks Production: An Overview.” Construction and Building Materials 165 (March 2018): 112–125. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.01.038.

Tamburini, Sergio, Marco Natali, Enrico Garbin, Matteo Panizza, Monica Favaro, and Maria Rosa Valluzzi. “Geopolymer Matrix for Fibre Reinforced Composites Aimed at Strengthening Masonry Structures.” Construction and Building Materials 141 (June 2017): 542–552. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.03.017.

D. Eliche-Quesada, J. A. Sandalio-Pérez, S. Martínez-Martínez, L. Pérez-Villarejo, and P. J. Sánchez-Soto, “Investigation of use of coal fly ash in eco-friendly construction materials: fired clay bricks and silica-calcareous non fired bricks,” Ceram. Int., 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2015.11.042

Fernandes, Francisco M. “Clay Bricks.” Long-Term Performance and Durability of Masonry Structures (2019): 3–19. doi:10.1016/b978-0-08-102110-1.00001-7.

Joglekar, Saurabh N., Rhushikesh A. Kharkar, Sachin A. Mandavgane, and Bhaskar D. Kulkarni. “Sustainability Assessment of Brick Work for Low-Cost Housing: A Comparison between Waste Based Bricks and Burnt Clay Bricks.” Sustainable Cities and Society 37 (February 2018): 396–406. doi:10.1016/j.scs.2017.11.025.

Dalkılıç, Neslihan, and Adnan Nabikoğlu. “Traditional Manufacturing of Clay Brick Used in the Historical Buildings of Diyarbakir (Turkey).” Frontiers of Architectural Research 6, no. 3 (September 2017): 346–359. doi:10.1016/j.foar.2017.06.003.

Ukwatta, Aruna, and Abbas Mohajerani. “Characterisation of Fired-Clay Bricks Incorporating Biosolids and the Effect of Heating Rate on Properties of Bricks.” Construction and Building Materials 142 (July 2017): 11–22. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.03.047.

Anderson, Marti J. “Permutational Multivariate Analysis of Variance (PERMANOVA).” Wiley StatsRef: Statistics Reference Online (November 15, 2017): 1–15. doi:10.1002/9781118445112.stat07841.

Walshaw, E. G., and C. J. Mannion. “A Systematic Approach.” BDJ 224, no. 8 (April 27, 2018): 560–560. doi:10.1038/sj.bdj.2018.318.

Pillastrini, P., F. de Lima e Sa Resende, F. Banchelli, A. Burioli, E. Di Ciaccio, A. A. Guccione, J. H. Villafane, and C. Vanti. “Effectiveness of Global Postural Re-Education in Patients With Chronic Nonspecific Neck Pain: Randomized Controlled Trial.” Physical Therapy 96, no. 9 (March 24, 2016): 1408–1416. doi:10.2522/ptj.20150501.

Anderson, Marti J. “Permutational Multivariate Analysis of Variance (PERMANOVA).” Wiley StatsRef: Statistics Reference Online (November 15, 2017): 1–15. doi:10.1002/9781118445112.stat07841.

D. Rasch, “4. Analysis of Variance.” The Design and Analysis of Experiments and Surveys (December 31, 2007): 99–148. doi:10.1515/9783486843668-005.

Chambers, John M., and Trevor J. Hastie, eds. “Statistical Models in S” (November 1, 2017). doi:10.1201/9780203738535.

G. E. P. Box and D. R. Cox, “An Analysis of Transformations,” J. R. Stat. Soc. Ser. B, 2018. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevD.97.072010

Pimentel, Harold, Nicolas L Bray, Suzette Puente, Páll Melsted, and Lior Pachter. “Differential Analysis of RNA-Seq Incorporating Quantification Uncertainty.” Nature Methods 14, no. 7 (June 5, 2017): 687–690. doi:10.1038/nmeth.4324.

Aue, Alexander, Lajos Horváth, and Daniel F. Pellatt. “Functional Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity.” Journal of Time Series Analysis 38, no. 1 (March 27, 2016): 3–21. doi:10.1111/jtsa.12192.

Dempster, A. P., N. M. Laird, and D. B. Rubin. “Maximum Likelihood from Incomplete Data Via the EM Algorithm.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Methodological) 39, no. 1 (September 1977): 1–22. doi:10.1111/j.2517-6161.1977.tb01600.x.

Brereton, Richard G. “Introduction to Analysis of Variance.” Journal of Chemometrics 33, no. 1 (March 14, 2018): e3018. doi:10.1002/cem.3018.

Roever, Carsten, and Aek Phakiti. “One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).” Quantitative Methods for Second Language Research (July 20, 2017): 117–134. doi:10.4324/9780203067659-9.

Molugaram, Kumar, and G. Shanker Rao. “ANOVA (Analysis of Variance).” Statistical Techniques for Transportation Engineering (2017): 451–462. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-811555-8.00011-8.

Hoch, Julia E., William H. Bommer, James H. Dulebohn, and Dongyuan Wu. “Do Ethical, Authentic, and Servant Leadership Explain Variance Above and Beyond Transformational Leadership? A Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Management 44, no. 2 (August 31, 2016): 501–529. doi:10.1177/0149206316665461.

Clark-Carter, David. “Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA).” Quantitative Psychological Research (December 7, 2018): 320–333. doi:10.4324/9781315398143-22.

Kock, Ned, and Gary Lynn. “Lateral Collinearity and Misleading Results in Variance-Based SEM: An Illustration and Recommendations.” Journal of the Association for Information Systems 13, no. 7 (July 2012): 546–580. doi:10.17705/1jais.00302.

Consigli, Giorgio. “Optimization Methods in Finance.” Quantitative Finance 19, no. 5 (April 17, 2019): 717–719. doi:10.1080/14697688.2019.1601863.

Benjamini, Yoav, and Yosef Hochberg. “Controlling the False Discovery Rate: A Practical and Powerful Approach to Multiple Testing.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Methodological) 57, no. 1 (January 1995): 289–300. doi:10.1111/j.2517-6161.1995.tb02031.x.

Wagner, Natalie K., Brad M. Ochocki, Kerri M. Crawford, Aldo Compagnoni, and Tom E.X. Miller. “Genetic Mixture of Multiple Source Populations Accelerates Invasive Range Expansion.” Edited by Kim Cuddington. Journal of Animal Ecology 86, no. 1 (August 8, 2016): 21–34. doi:10.1111/1365-2656.12567.

Böhning-Gaese, Caprano, van Ewijk, and Veith. “Range Size: Disentangling Current Traits and Phylogenetic and Biogeographic Factors.” The American Naturalist 167, no. 4 (2006): 555. doi:10.2307/3844709.

Hickerson, Michael J., Eli A. Stahl, and H. A. Lessios. “TEST FOR SIMULTANEOUS DIVERGENCE USING APPROXIMATE BAYESIAN COMPUTATION.” Evolution 60, no. 12 (December 2006): 2435–2453. doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2006.tb01880.x.

Theme Horse, “Tukey Test / Tukey Procedure / Honest Significant Difference,” Statistics How To, 2018. .

Mazor, Gal, Lior Weizman, Assaf Tal, and Yonina C. Eldar. “Low-Rank Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting.” Medical Physics 45, no. 9 (August 16, 2018): 4066–4084. doi:10.1002/mp.13078.

Johnson, Laura Lee, Craig B. Borkowf, and Pamela A. Shaw. “Hypothesis Testing.” Principles and Practice of Clinical Research (2018): 341–357. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-849905-4.00024-1.

C. M. Judd, G. H. McClelland, and C. S. Ryan, “One-Way ANOVA,” in Data Analysis, 2018.

Judd, Charles M., Gary H. McClelland, and Carey S. Ryan. “Repeated-Measures ANOVA.” Data Analysis (May 18, 2017): 260–291. doi:10.4324/9781315744131-11.

Judd, Charles M., Gary H. McClelland, and Carey S. Ryan. “Factorial ANOVA.” Data Analysis (May 18, 2017): 205–228. doi:10.4324/9781315744131-9.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-2019-03091320


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 zahid hussain, Shamshad Ali

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.