Remove Chemical Contaminants from Potable Water by Household Water Treatment System

Teba S. Hussain, Alaa H. Al-Fatlawi


The Main aim of the present study is to manufacture "Low- Cost Water Filter" for purification water and are designed for small water capacity, using readily available material and environmentally friendly such as kaolin clay, and jute fibers. A number of household treatment systems are readily available in the market. They are differing mainly in make and water purification mechanisms utilized. Most of the available household treatment devices are costly and hence there is a need to come up with cheap or affordable treatment technologies. This research was carried out to determine the efficiency of Kaolin-jute fibers filters in improving water impurities. Types of filters that were used during this study are: Filter 1, build with mixing ratio 85% kaolin clay, and 15% jute fibers, Filter 2: 80% kaolin clay, and 20% jute fibers, Filter 3, 75% kaolin clay, and 25% jute fibers. Effectiveness of these filters in decreasing chemical parameters like Hydrogen Ion Concentration (pH), Chloride (Cl), Calcium (Ca), Total Hardness (T.H), Magnesium (Mg), Alkalinity (ALK), Sulfates (SO4), Sodium (Na), and Potassium (K), were 8.7%, 71.54%, 70.5%, 70.5%, 80.7%, 77.9%, 85.5%, 71.64%, and 69.6% respectively. Kaolin-jute fibers filters can produce enough drinking and cooking water for a family of small members due to their flow rates. These filters may be considered for treating contaminated water at household scale in rural areas and places where water is taken directly from the source without treatment.


Kaolin Clay; Jute Fibers; Potable Water; Household Water.


Dies, Robert William. "Development of a ceramic water filter for Nepal." PhD diss., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2003. Available online: (accessed on 10 Apr 2020).

World Health Organization. "Combating waterborne disease at the household level." (2007). Available online: (accessed on 14 Apr 2020).

Qasim, Syed R., Edward M. Motley, and Guang Zhu. Water works engineering: planning, design, and operation. Prentice Hall, (2000).

Oyanedel-Craver, Vinka A., and James A. Smith. “Sustainable Colloidal-Silver-Impregnated Ceramic Filter for Point-of-Use Water Treatment.” Environmental Science & Technology 42, no. 3 (February 2008): 927–933. doi:10.1021/es071268u.

Sundarakumar, R. "Pilot scale study on floating media filtration for surface water treatment." PhD diss., Asian Institute of Technology, 1996.

Davis, Mackenzie L. Water and wastewater engineering: design principles and practice. McGraw-Hill, 2010.

Brown, Joe, and Mark D. Sobsey. “Microbiological Effectiveness of Locally Produced Ceramic Filters for Drinking Water Treatment in Cambodia.” Journal of Water and Health 8, no. 1 (November 9, 2009): 1–10. doi:10.2166/wh.2009.007.

Nnaji, CC, BC Afangideh, and C Ezeh. “Performance Evaluation of Clay-Sawdust Composite Filter for Point of Use Water Treatment.” Nigerian Journal of Technology 35, no. 4 (September 25, 2016): 949. doi:10.4314/njt.v35i4.33.

Russell D. L. “Filtration Theory and Practice.” Practical Wastewater Treatment (April 10, 2006): 135–148. doi:10.1002/0470067926.ch8.

Ren, Dianjun, Lisa M. Colosi, and James A. Smith. “Evaluating the Sustainability of Ceramic Filters for Point-of-Use Drinking Water Treatment.” Environmental Science & Technology 47, no. 19 (September 18, 2013): 11206–11213. doi:10.1021/es4026084.

Henry, Michael, Siri Maley, and Khanjan Mehta. “Designing a Low-Cost Ceramic Water Filter Press.” International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering, Humanitarian Engineering and Social Entrepreneurship 8, no. 1 (June 4, 2013): 62–77. doi:10.24908/ijsle.v8i1.4532.

World Health Organization, WHO, and World Health Organization Staff. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. Vol. 1. World Health Organization, 2004.

Tebbutt, Thomas Hugh Yelland. Principles of water quality control. Elsevier, 1997.

Brown, Joe, Dana Loomis, and Mark D. Sobsey. “Local Drinking Water Filters Reduce Diarrheal Disease in Cambodia: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of the Ceramic Water Purifier.” The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 79, no. 3 (September 1, 2008): 394–400. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2008.79.394.

Bulta, Alemu Lelago, and Geremew Arega W. Micheal. “Evaluation of the Efficiency of Ceramic Filters for Water Treatment in Kambata Tabaro Zone, Southern Ethiopia.” Environmental Systems Research 8, no. 1 (January 5, 2019). doi:10.1186/s40068-018-0129-6.

Collivignarelli, Maria, Alessandro Abbà, Ilaria Benigna, Sabrina Sorlini, and Vincenzo Torretta. “Overview of the Main Disinfection Processes for Wastewater and Drinking Water Treatment Plants.” Sustainability 10, no. 2 (December 31, 2017): 86. doi:10.3390/su10010086.

Zereffa, Enyew Amare, and Tesfaye Betela Bekalo. “Clay Ceramic Filter for Water Treatment.” Materials Science and Applied Chemistry 34, no. 1 (January 1, 2017). doi:10.1515/msac-2017-0011.

Kallman, Erin N., Vinka A. Oyanedel-Craver, and James A. Smith. “Ceramic Filters Impregnated with Silver Nanoparticles for Point-of-Use Water Treatment in Rural Guatemala.” Journal of Environmental Engineering 137, no. 6 (June 2011): 407–415. doi:10.1061/(asce)ee.1943-7870.0000330.

Mahlangu, Themba O., Bhekie B. Mamba, and Maggie NB Momba. "A comparative assessment of chemical contaminant removal by three household water treatment filters." Water SA 38, no. 1 (2012): 39-48. doi: 10.4314/wsa.v38i1.6.

Ehdaie, Beeta, Chloe T. Rento, Veronica Son, Sydney S. Turner, Amidou Samie, Rebecca A. Dillingham, and James A. Smith. “Evaluation of a Silver-Embedded Ceramic Tablet as a Primary and Secondary Point-of-Use Water Purification Technology in Limpopo Province, S. Africa.” Edited by Zhi Zhou. PLOS ONE 12, no. 1 (January 17, 2017): e0169502. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0169502.

Massoudinejad, Mohamadreza, Yalda Hashempour, and Hamed Mohammad. “Evaluation of Carbon Aerogel Manufacturing Process in Order to Desalination of Saline and Brackish Water in Laboratory Scale.” Civil Engineering Journal 4, no. 1 (February 7, 2018): 212. doi:10.28991/cej-030980.

Bulta, Alemu Lelago, and Geremew Arega W. Micheal. “Evaluation of the Efficiency of Ceramic Filters for Water Treatment in Kambata Tabaro Zone, Southern Ethiopia.” Environmental Systems Research 8, no. 1 (January 5, 2019). doi:10.1186/s40068-018-0129-6.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-2020-03091565


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Teba Saadi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.