Developing a Sustainable Concrete using Waste Glass and Rubber for Application in Precast Pedestrian Slabs

Asish Seeboo, Chetanand Choollun


In this piece of research, n attempt was made to produce a sustainable concrete with the partial replacement of both fine and coarse natural aggregates with two different non-biodegradable wastes. The selected wastes were fine glass and shredded rubber tires. Fine glass passing through 4.75 mm BS sieve was utilised for the partial replacement of fine natural aggregates. Coarse natural aggregates were partially replaced with shredded rubber passing through 20 mm sieve and retained on 6.30 mm sieve. Several mixes with varying % of fine glass but with a fixed 10 % of shredded rubber were tested. Optimum fine glass content was determined to be in the order of 20 %. The resulting concrete exhibited lower plastic and hardened densities (2040 and 2117 kg/m3 respectively) in comparison to normal plain concrete. The static modulus of elasticity was found to be 18.3 GPa (mean value), while the splitting tensile strength was 2.37 MPa. The flexural strength showed a significant increase of 20.3% compared to the control mix. The results concluded that the concrete thus produced is a viable means of disposing of such non-biodegradable wastes (rubber and glass), thus reducing the loads at landfills. This new genre of concrete was produced at a lower cost than normal concrete because of the very low pre-treatment costs of the recycled wastes used. Furthermore, the properties tend to indicate that the concrete could be applied where lower strength and high durability properties are warranted. Hence precast slabs were made from the new design concrete and were tested along a stretch of a highly trafficable pedestrian walkway on the University campus. The slabs were continuously monitored for defects such as cracks, broken corners and slabs for a period of 24 consecutive weeks. After the test period it was observed that only 4 out of the 80 precast slabs had hairline cracks. Hence concluding the enhanced durability properties of the new design concrete.


Doi: 10.28991/cej-2021-03091690

Full Text: PDF


Recycle Materials; Shredded Rubber; Fine Glass; Sustainable Concrete; Precast Slabs.


Sinha-Khetriwal, Deepali, Philipp Kraeuchi, and Markus Schwaninger. “A Comparison of Electronic Waste Recycling in Switzerland and in India.” Environmental Impact Assessment Review 25, no. 5 (July 2005): 492–504. doi:10.1016/j.eiar.2005.04.006.

Scharnhorst, Wolfram, Hans-Jörg Althaus, Mischa Classen, Olivier Jolliet, and Lorenz M. Hilty. “The End of Life Treatment of Second Generation Mobile Phone Networks: Strategies to Reduce the Environmental Impact.” Environmental Impact Assessment Review 25, no. 5 (July 2005): 540–566. doi:10.1016/j.eiar.2005.04.005.

Kishore, Kamal, and Nakul Gupta. “Application of Domestic & Industrial Waste Materials in Concrete: A Review.” Materials Today: Proceedings 26 (2020): 2926–2931. doi:10.1016/j.matpr.2020.02.604.

Tavakoli, Davoud, Masoumeh Hashempour, and Ali Heidari. "Use of waste materials in concrete: A review." Pertanika J Sci Technol 26, no. 2 (2018): 499-522.

Khope, Rishikesh A., and Milind V. Mohod. "A review paper on recycled materials in concrete pavement." Int J Res Eng Sci Technol. 1, no. 8 (2015): 186-94.

Prabhatkumar, A. K., & Khan, M. (2016). A review paper on experimental study for recycle concrete. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) Vol. (03) (2016):1617–1619.

N. Patel and P. Patel, ‘‘Use of Demolished Concrete Materials in Concrete and Comparative Study of its Mechanical Properties: NDT Comparison,” vol. 5. 4712–4721: (2016).

Husain, Asif, and Majid Matouq Assas. "Utilization of demolished concrete waste for new construction." World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 73, no. 2013 (2013): 605-610.

Federico, L.M., and S.E. Chidiac. “Waste Glass as a Supplementary Cementitious Material in Concrete – Critical Review of Treatment Methods.” Cement and Concrete Composites 31, no. 8 (September 2009): 606–610. doi:10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2009.02.001.

Mohajerani, Abbas, John Vajna, Tsz Ho Homan Cheung, Halenur Kurmus, Arul Arulrajah, and Suksun Horpibulsuk. “Practical Recycling Applications of Crushed Waste Glass in Construction Materials: A Review.” Construction and Building Materials 156 (December 2017): 443–467. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.09.005..

Rashad, Alaa M. “Recycled Cathode Ray Tube and Liquid Crystal Display Glass as Fine Aggregate Replacement in Cementitious Materials.” Construction and Building Materials 93 (September 2015): 1236–1248. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.05.004.

Chandra Paul, Suvash, Branko Šavija, and Adewumi John Babafemi. “A Comprehensive Review on Mechanical and Durability Properties of Cement-Based Materials Containing Waste Recycled Glass.” Journal of Cleaner Production 198 (October 2018): 891–906. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.07.095.

Rashad, Alaa M. “Recycled Waste Glass as Fine Aggregate Replacement in Cementitious Materials Based on Portland Cement.” Construction and Building Materials 72 (December 2014): 340–357. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.08.092.

Etris, SF, YR Fiorini, KC Lieb, IC Moore, AL Batik, and CD Johnston. “Waste Glass as Coarse Aggregate for Concrete.” Journal of Testing and Evaluation 2, no. 5 (1974): 344. doi:10.1520/jte10117j.

Ismail, Zainab Z., and Enas A. AL-Hashmi. “Recycling of Waste Glass as a Partial Replacement for Fine Aggregate in Concrete.” Waste Management 29, no. 2 (February 2009): 655–659. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2008.08.012..

Ali, Esraa Emam, and Sherif H. Al-Tersawy. “Recycled Glass as a Partial Replacement for Fine Aggregate in Self Compacting Concrete.” Construction and Building Materials 35 (October 2012): 785–791. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.04.117.

Corinaldesi, V., G. Gnappi, G. Moriconi, and A. Montenero. “Reuse of Ground Waste Glass as Aggregate for Mortars.” Waste Management 25, no. 2 (January 2005): 197–201. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2004.12.009.

Gomes, João Castro, P. Santos, and Luiz António Pereira de Oliveira. "Optimization of pozzolanic reaction of ground waste glass." (2004). Available online: (accessed on November 2020).

Wang, Her-Yung. “A Study of the Effects of LCD Glass Sand on the Properties of Concrete.” Waste Management 29, no. 1 (January 2009): 335–341. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2008.03.005.

Ling, Tung-Chai, and Chi-Sun Poon. “Use of Recycled CRT Funnel Glass as Fine Aggregate in Dry-Mixed Concrete Paving Blocks.” Journal of Cleaner Production 68 (April 2014): 209–215. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.12.084.

Kou, S.C., and C.S. Poon. “Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Prepared with Recycled Glass Aggregate.” Cement and Concrete Composites 31, no. 2 (February 2009): 107–113. doi:10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2008.12.002.

Thomas, Blessen Skariah, Ramesh Chandra Gupta, Pawan Kalla, and Laszlo Cseteneyi. “Strength, Abrasion and Permeation Characteristics of Cement Concrete Containing Discarded Rubber Fine Aggregates.” Construction and Building Materials 59 (May 2014): 204–212. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.01.074.

World Business Council for Sustainable development, “Managing end‐of‐life tires|”, (2008):18.

U.S.Tire Manufacturers Association, U.S. Scrap Tire Management Summary, (2017-2018):21.

Senate, T. "Environment and Communications References Committee: Never waste a crisis: the waste and recycling industry in Australia." Parliament House Canberra ACT: Canberra, Australia (2018).

Fang, Yi, Maosheng Zhan, and Ying Wang. “The Status of Recycling of Waste Rubber.” Materials & Design 22, no. 2 (April 2001): 123–128. doi:10.1016/s0261-3069(00)00052-2.

Siddique, Rafat, and Tarun R. Naik. “Properties of Concrete Containing Scrap-Tire Rubber – an Overview.” Waste Management 24, no. 6 (January 2004): 563–569. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2004.01.006.

Al-Akhras, Nabil M, and Mohammed M Smadi. “Properties of Tire Rubber Ash Mortar.” Cement and Concrete Composites 26, no. 7 (October 2004): 821–826. doi:10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2004.01.004.

Bignozzi, M.C., and F. Sandrolini. “Tyre Rubber Waste Recycling in Self-Compacting Concrete.” Cement and Concrete Research 36, no. 4 (April 2006): 735–739. doi:10.1016/j.cemconres.2005.12.011.

Chan, C.W., T. Yu, S.S. Zhang, and Q.F. Xu. “Compressive Behaviour of FRP-Confined Rubber Concrete.” Construction and Building Materials 211 (June 2019): 416–426. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.03.211.

Mehdipour, Sadegh, Iman.M. Nikbin, Soudabeh Dezhampanah, Reza Mohebbi, HamidHabibi Moghadam, Shahin Charkhtab, and Abolhasan Moradi. “Mechanical Properties, Durability and Environmental Evaluation of Rubberized Concrete Incorporating Steel Fiber and Metakaolin at Elevated Temperatures.” Journal of Cleaner Production 254 (May 2020): 120126. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.120126.

Bompa, D.V., and A.Y. Elghazouli. “Creep Properties of Recycled Tyre Rubber Concrete.” Construction and Building Materials 209 (June 2019): 126–134. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.03.127.

Li, Guoqiang, Michael A. Stubblefield, Gregory Garrick, John Eggers, Christopher Abadie, and Baoshan Huang. “Development of Waste Tire Modified Concrete.” Cement and Concrete Research 34, no. 12 (December 2004): 2283–2289. doi:10.1016/j.cemconres.2004.04.013.

Topçu, Ilker Bekir. “The Properties of Rubberized Concretes.” Cement and Concrete Research 25, no. 2 (February 1995): 304–310. doi:10.1016/0008-8846(95)00014-3..

Wang, Jiaqing, Qingli Dai, Ruizhe Si, and Shuaicheng Guo. “Mechanical, Durability, and Microstructural Properties of Macro Synthetic Polypropylene (PP) Fiber-Reinforced Rubber Concrete.” Journal of Cleaner Production 234 (October 2019): 1351–1364. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.06.272.

Aslani, Farhad. “Mechanical Properties of Waste Tire Rubber Concrete.” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 28, no. 3 (March 2016): 04015152. doi:10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0001429.

Jalal, Mostafa, Navid Nassir, and Hamid Jalal. “Waste Tire Rubber and Pozzolans in Concrete: A Trade-Off Between Cleaner Production and Mechanical Properties in a Greener Concrete.” Journal of Cleaner Production 238 (November 2019): 117882. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.117882.

Eldin, Neil N., and Ahmed B. Senouci. “Rubber‐Tire Particles as Concrete Aggregate.”Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 5, no. 4 (November 1993): 478–496. doi:10.1061/(asce)0899-1561(1993)5:4(478).

Ismail, Mohamed K., and Assem A.A. Hassan. “Shear Behaviour of Large-Scale Rubberized Concrete Beams Reinforced with Steel Fibres.” Construction and Building Materials 140 (June 2017): 43–57. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.02.109.

Moustafa, Ayman, and Mohamed A. ElGawady. "Dynamic properties of high strength rubberized concrete." ACI Spec. Publ 314 (2017): 1-22.

Ismail, Mohamed K., and Assem A.A. Hassan. “Shear Behaviour of Large-Scale Rubberized Concrete Beams Reinforced with Steel Fibres.” Construction and Building Materials 140 (June 2017): 43–57. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.02.109.

Gesoğlu, Mehmet, Erhan Güneyisi, Ganjeena Khoshnaw, and Süleyman İpek. “Abrasion and Freezing–thawing Resistance of Pervious Concretes Containing Waste Rubbers.” Construction and Building Materials 73 (December 2014): 19–24. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.09.047.

Etefa, Gemeda, and Alemu Mosisa. “Waste Rubber Tires: A Partial Replacement for Coarse Aggregate in Concrete Floor Tile Production.” American Journal of Civil Engineering 8, no. 3 (2020): 57. doi:10.11648/j.ajce.20200803.12.

Khaloo, Ali R., M. Dehestani, and P. Rahmatabadi. “Mechanical Properties of Concrete Containing a High Volume of Tire–rubber Particles.” Waste Management 28, no. 12 (December 2008): 2472–2482. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2008.01.015.

Toutanji, H.A. “The Use of Rubber Tire Particles in Concrete to Replace Mineral Aggregates.” Cement and Concrete Composites 18, no. 2 (January 1996): 135–139. doi:10.1016/0958-9465(95)00010-0.

Ganjian, Eshmaiel, Morteza Khorami, and Ali Akbar Maghsoudi. “Scrap-Tyre-Rubber Replacement for Aggregate and Filler in Concrete.” Construction and Building Materials 23, no. 5 (May 2009): 1828–1836. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2008.09.020.

Zheng, L., X. Sharon Huo, and Y. Yuan. “Strength, Modulus of Elasticity, and Brittleness Index of Rubberized Concrete.” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 20, no. 11 (November 2008): 692–699. doi:10.1061/(asce)0899-1561(2008)20:11(692).

Topçu, lker Bekir, and Nuri Avcular. “Analysis of Rubberized Concrete as a Composite Material.” Cement and Concrete Research 27, no. 8 (August 1997): 1135–1139. doi:10.1016/s0008-8846(97)00115-4.

Neville, Adam M. Properties of concrete. Vol. 4. London: Longman, (1995).

Abdullah, Anas Ibrahim. “Structural Behavior of High Strength Laced Reinforced Concrete One Way Slab Exposed to Fire Flame.” Civil Engineering Journal 5, no. 12 (December 1, 2019): 2747–2761. doi:10.28991/cej-2019-03091446.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-2021-03091690


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Asish Seeboo

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.