Optimizing Mixtures of Alkali Aluminosilicate Cement Based on Ternary By-Products

Hoang Vinh Long


Portland cement is a popular binder but causes many adverse effects on the environment. That is due to the large consumption of raw materials and energy during production while emitting vast amounts of CO2. In recent years, Alkali Aluminosilicate Cement (AAC) has drawn much attention in research and development and promises to become a binder that can replace the traditional cement. In many studies of this binder, the content of the ingredients is often gradually changed to determine the optimal composition. The object of this paper is to optimize the composition of AAC using a combination of three by-products as the primary raw material, including Rush Husk Ash (RHA), Fly Ash (FA), and Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag (GGBS). The investigation was conducted based on the critical parameter SiO2/Al2O3, and the D-optimal design. The FA and the GGBS were industrial product form, while the RHA was ground in a ball mill for 2 hours before mixing. The results show that this type of binder has setting time and soundness to meet standard cement requirements. While comparing to Portland cement, the AAC has a faster setting time, slower development of compressive strength in the early stages but a higher strength at the age of 56 days. According to the highest compressive strength at 28 days and high fly ash content, the optimal composition was RHA of 27.8%, FA of 41.8%, and GGBS of 15.4%, corresponding to the ratio SiO2/Al2O3 of 3.83. In addition, compressive strength at 28 days of the mortar specimens with the optimal binder and the ratio of water/ cement at 0.32 reached 63 MPa.


Doi: 10.28991/cej-2021-03091724

Full Text: PDF


Alkali Aluminosilicate Cement; Rice Husk Ash, Fly Ash, Ground Granulated Blast- Furnace Slag, D-Optimal Design.


Caijun Shi, Della Roy, and Pavel Krivenko. “Alkali-Activated Cements and Concretes” (May 10, 2006), Taylor & Francis.

Grant Norton, M., Provis, J.L. “1000 at 1000: Geopolymer technology- the current state of the art.” Journal of Materials Science 55 (October 2020): 13487–13489. doi.org/10.1007/s10853-020-04990-z.

F. Pacheco-Torgal, J. Castro-Gomes, and S. Jalali. “Alkali-activated binders: A review: Part 1. Historical background, terminology, reaction mechanisms, and hydration products.” Construction and Building Materials 22 (July 2008): 1305-1314, doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2007.10.015.

Palomo, P. Krivenko, I. García-Lodeiro, E. Kavalerova, O. Maltseva, and A. Fernández-Jiménez, "A review on alkaline activation: New analytical perspectives," Materiales de Construccion 64 (July-September 2014): 1-24, doi.org/10.3989/mc.2014.00314.

Krivenko, Pavel, Oleksandr Kovalchuk, Anton Pasko, Tom Croymans, Mikael Hult, Guillaume Lutter, Niels Vandevenne, Sonja Schreurs, and Wouter Schroeyers. “Development of Alkali Activated Cements and Concrete Mixture Design with High Volumes of Red Mud.” Construction and Building Materials 151 (October 2017): 819–826. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.06.031.

Davidovits, Joseph. "Environmentally driven geopolymer cement applications." In Proceedings of 2002 Geopolymer Conference. Melbourne. Australia. 2002.

Jiang, Mohan, Xiaoju Chen, Farshad Rajabipour, and Chris T. Hendrickson. “Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Conventional, Glass Powder, and Alkali-Activated Slag Concrete and Mortar.” Journal of Infrastructure Systems 20, no. 4 (December 2014): 04014020. doi:10.1061/(asce)is.1943-555x.0000211.

Bach, D T, V L Hoang, and N B Nguyen. “Pelletized Fly Ash Aggregates Use for Making Eco-Friendly Concrete.” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 869 (July 10, 2020): 032028. doi:10.1088/1757-899x/869/3/032028.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), FAOSTAT, 2019. Available online: http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC. (accessed on March 2021).

Abbas, Anwar Saad, and Mohammed Mansour Kadhum. “Impact of Fire on Mechanical Properties of Slurry Infiltrated Fiber Concrete (SIFCON).” Civil Engineering Journal 6 (September 30, 2020): 12–23. doi:10.28991/cej-2020-sp(emce)-02.

“Using granulated blast furnace slag: Reduce CO2 emissions, improve construction quality.” Newspaper of Resources and Environment (in Vietnamese: “Sử dụng xỉ hạt lò cao: Giảm phát thải CO2, nâng cao chất lượng công trình xây dựng.” Báo Tài nguyên và Môi trường). Available online: https://baotainguyenmoitruong.vn/su-dung-xi-hat-lo-cao-giam-phat-thai-co2-nang-cao-chat-luong-cong-trinh-xay-dung-239325.html (accessed on February 2021).

Nath, Pradip, and Prabir Kumar Sarker. “Effect of GGBFS on Setting, Workability and Early Strength Properties of Fly Ash Geopolymer Concrete Cured in Ambient Condition.” Construction and Building Materials 66 (September 2014): 163–171. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.05.080.

Songpiriyakij, Smith, Tawich Pulngern, Pompong Pungpremtrakul, and Chai Jaturapitakkul. “Anchorage of Steel Bars in Concrete by Geopolymer Paste.” Materials & Design 32, no. 5 (May 2011): 3021–3028. doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2011.01.048.

Matalkah, Faris, and Parviz Soroushian. “Synthesis and Characterization of Alkali Aluminosilicate Hydraulic Cement That Meets Standard Requirements for General Use.” Construction and Building Materials 158 (January 2018): 42–49. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.10.002.

Darsanasiri, A.G.N.D., Faris Matalkah, Salina Ramli, Kutaibah Al-Jalode, Anagi Balachandra, and Parviz Soroushian. “Ternary Alkali Aluminosilicate Cement Based on Rice Husk Ash, Slag and Coal Fly Ash.” Journal of Building Engineering 19 (September 2018): 36–41. doi:10.1016/j.jobe.2018.04.020.

Mejía de Gutiérrez, R., J. M. Mejía, and F. Puertas. “Ceniza de Cascarilla de Arroz Como Fuente de Sílice En Sistemas Cementicios de Ceniza Volante y Escoria Activados Alcalinamente.” Materiales de Construcción 63, no. 311 (September 20, 2013): 361–375. doi:10.3989/mc.2013.04712.

Bernal, Susan A., Erich D. Rodríguez, Ruby Mejia de Gutiérrez, John L. Provis, and Silvio Delvasto. “Activation of Metakaolin/Slag Blends Using Alkaline Solutions Based on Chemically Modified Silica Fume and Rice Husk Ash.” Waste and Biomass Valorization 3, no. 1 (October 7, 2011): 99–108. doi:10.1007/s12649-011-9093-3.

Provis, John L., Peter Duxson, Grant C. Lukey, and Jannie S. J. van Deventer. “Statistical Thermodynamic Model for Si/Al Ordering in Amorphous Aluminosilicates.” Chemistry of Materials 17, no. 11 (May 2005): 2976–2986. doi:10.1021/cm050219i..

Diaz, E.I., E.N. Allouche, and S. Eklund. “Factors Affecting the Suitability of Fly Ash as Source Material for Geopolymers.” Fuel 89, no. 5 (May 2010): 992–996. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2009.09.012.

Rashad, Alaa M. “A Comprehensive Overview About the Influence of Different Admixtures and Additives on the Properties of Alkali-Activated Fly Ash.” Materials & Design 53 (January 2014): 1005–1025. doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2013.07.074.

He, Pingping, Binyu Zhang, Jian-Xin Lu, and Chi Sun Poon. “A Ternary Optimization of Alkali-Activated Cement Mortars Incorporating Glass Powder, Slag and Calcium Aluminate Cement.” Construction and Building Materials 240 (April 2020): 117983. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.117983.

Venkatesan, Mayandi, Qammer Zaib, Izhar Hussain Shah, and Hung Suck Park. “Optimum Utilization of Waste Foundry Sand and Fly Ash for Geopolymer Concrete Synthesis Using D-Optimal Mixture Design of Experiments.” Resources, Conservation and Recycling 148 (September 2019): 114–123. doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2019.05.008.

ASTM C150/C150M-20, Standard Specification for Portland Cement, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, (2020).

ISO 9597:2008 Cement - Test methods - Determination of setting time and soundness (2008).

ISO 679:2009 Cement - Test methods - Determination of strength (2009).

Chindaprasirt, Prinya, Pre De Silva, Kwesi Sagoe-Crentsil, and Sakonwan Hanjitsuwan. “Effect of SiO2 and Al2O3 on the Setting and Hardening of High Calcium Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Systems.” Journal of Materials Science 47, no. 12 (March 3, 2012): 4876–4883. doi:10.1007/s10853-012-6353-y.

Palomo, A., M.W. Grutzeck, and M.T. Blanco. “Alkali-Activated Fly Ashes.” Cement and Concrete Research 29, no. 8 (August 1999): 1323–1329. doi:10.1016/s0008-8846(98)00243-9.

L.T. Thành and N. C. Thắng. “Influence of ground granulated blast-furnace slag on the viscosity of binder paste for production of UHPC.” Tạp chí Khoa học Công nghệ Xây dựng 11 (2017): 16-21.

Vietnam Standard TCVN 2682: 2009. “Portland cement – Specifications.”, (2009).

Thắng, N. C., Thắng, N. T., Hanh, P. H., Tuấn, N. V., and Lâm, N. T. “Ultra high performance concrete using a combination of Silica Fume and ground granulated blast-furnace slag in Vietnam,” Tạp chí Khoa học Công nghệ Xây dựng, 7 (2013):83-92.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-2021-03091724


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Hoang Vinh Long

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.