The Effect of Adding Fibers on Dry Shrinkage of Geopolymer Concrete

Qais J. Frayyeh, Mushtaq H. Kamil


Despite their drastically different chemical ingredients and interactions, geopolymer concrete exhibits many of the same features as ordinary concrete. Among these properties is drying shrinkage. As in normal concrete, dry shrinkage in geopolymer concrete may cause cracking if the geopolymer concrete is bound, which affects the integrity of the structure in the future. It's important to measure drying shrinkage as soon as possible because it's the cause of early age cracking, which happens when the concrete isn't very strong. The purpose of this study is to determine how to reduce the dry shrinkage value of geopolymer concrete by using different types of fibers. Three types of fibers were used to determine their effect on the dry shrinkage of geopolymer concrete when compared with a reference mixture without the fibers. Metakaolin was used as a binder for the concrete geopolymer. As for the fibers, steel, carbon and polypropylene fibers were used in proportions of (0, 0.5, and 1%). The results showed an improvement in dryness shrinkage when adding fibers in general, with a difference in values between the different types of fibers. Steel fibers had the lowest amount of dry shrinkage. The temperature had a direct influence on the decrease in the extent of the shrinking, since the samples handled at higher temperatures had less dryness to begin with.


Doi: 10.28991/cej-2021-03091780

Full Text: PDF


Geopolymer; Fiber; Dry Shrinkage; Carbon Fiber; Metakaolin.


Shihua, Li. "Influence of Admixtures on Shrinkage Property and Cracking Behavior of Concrete [J]." Zhengzhou: Zhengzhou University (2012).

Hassan, Amer, Mohammed Arif, and M. Shariq. “Influence of Microstructure of Geopolymer Concrete on Its Mechanical Properties—A Review.” In Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, 35, (2020): 119–29. doi:10.1007/978-981-13-7480-7_10.

Nazari, Ali, Ali Bagheri, Jay Sanjayan, Parth N.J.A. Yadav, and Hasnat Tariq. “A Comparative Study of Void Distribution Pattern on the Strength Development between OPC-Based and Geopolymer Concrete.” Advances in Materials Science and Engineering 2019 (2019). doi:10.1155/2019/1412757.

Wallah, S. E. "Creep behaviour of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete." Civil Engineering Dimension 12, no. 2 (2010): 73-78.

Wallah, Steenie, and B. Vijaya Rangan. "Low-calcium fly ash-based geopolymer concrete: long-term properties." Faculty of Engineering, Curtain University of Technology, Perth, Australia (2006).

Perera, D. S., O. Uchida, E. R. Vance, and K. S. Finnie. “Influence of Curing Schedule on the Integrity of Geopolymers.” Journal of Materials Science 42, no. 9 (2007): 3099–3106. doi:10.1007/s10853-006-0533-6.

Hassan, Amer, Mohammed Arif, and M. Shariq. “Use of Geopolymer Concrete for a Cleaner and Sustainable Environment – A Review of Mechanical Properties and Microstructure.” Journal of Cleaner Production 223 (2019): 704–28. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.03.051.

Scherer, George W. “Theory of Drying.” Journal of the American Ceramic Society 73, no. 1 (1990): 3–14. doi:10.1111/j.1151-2916.1990.tb05082.x.

Verma, Manvendra, and Nirendra Dev. “Effect of Liquid to Binder Ratio and Curing Temperature on the Engineering Properties of the Geopolymer Concrete.” Silicon. Silicon, ISSN, 2021. doi:10.1007/s12633-021-00985-w.

Bell, J. L., and W. M. Kriven. “Preparation of Ceramic Foams from Metakaolin-Based Geopolymer Gels.” In Developments in Strategic Materials, Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, edited by H.-T. Lin, K Koumoto, W M Kriven, E Garcia, I E Reimanis, and D P, 29. Hoboken, NJ: Norton John Wiley & Sons, Inc, (2009): 96–111. doi:10.1002/9780470456200.ch10.

V.B, Rangan. “Developments in Porous, Biological and Geopolymer Ceramics.” Edited by Manuel Brito, Eldon Case, and Waltraud M Kriven. Developments in Porous, Biological and Geopolymer Ceramics 28, no. ue 9 (2007). doi:10.1002/9780470339749.

Eisa, M. S., M. E. Basiouny, and E. A. Fahmy. “Effect of Metakaolin-Based Geopolymer Concrete on the Length of Rigid Pavement Slabs.” Innovative Infrastructure Solutions 6, no. 2 (2021): 1–9. doi:10.1007/s41062-021-00465-5.

Luhar, Salmabanu, Ismail Luhar, and Rishi Gupta. “Durability Performance Evaluation of Green Geopolymer Concrete.” European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering (December 11, 2020): 1–49. doi:10.1080/19648189.2020.1847691.

Shayan, A., C. Tennakoon, and A. Xu. Specification and use of geopolymer concrete in the manufacture of structural and non-structural components: experimental work. No. AP-T329-17. (2017).

Khan, Inamullah, Tengfei Xu, Arnaud Castel, Raymond Ian Gilbert, and Mahdi Babaee. “Risk of Early Age Cracking in Geopolymer Concrete Due to Restrained Shrinkage.” Construction and Building Materials 229 (2019): 116840. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.116840.

Al-Hedad, Abbas S.A., Nabeel A. Farhan, Mengying Zhang, M. Neaz Sheikh, and Muhammad N.S. Hadi. “Effect of Geogrid Reinforcement on the Drying Shrinkage and Thermal Expansion of Geopolymer Concrete.” Structural Concrete 21, no. 3 (2020): 1029–39. doi:10.1002/suco.201900299.

Gailitis, R., A. Sprince, L. Pakrastins, G. Sahmenko, and T. Kozlovskis. “Drying Shrinkage Deformation Comparison between Foam Concrete, Geopolymer Concrete, Disintegrated, and Non-Disintegrated Cement Mortar.” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 660, no. 1 (2019): 12036. doi:10.1088/1757-899X/660/1/012036.

Bernal, Susan, Ruby De Gutierrez, Silvio Delvasto, and Erich Rodriguez. “Performance of an Alkali-Activated Slag Concrete Reinforced with Steel Fibers.” Construction and Building Materials 24, no. 2 (2010): 208–14. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2007.10.027.

Ranjbar, Navid, Mehdi Mehrali, Mohammad Mehrali, U. Johnson Alengaram, and Mohd Zamin Jumaat. “Graphene Nanoplatelet-Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Composites.” Cement and Concrete Research 76, no. 0 (2015): 222–31. doi:10.1016/j.cemconres.2015.06.003.

Sahoo, Dipti Ranjan, Apekshit Solanki, and Abhimanyu Kumar. “Influence of Steel and Polypropylene Fibers on Flexural Behavior of RC Beams.” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 27, no. 8 (2015): 04014232. doi:10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0001193.

Banthia, Nemkumar, and Rishi Gupta. “Influence of Polypropylene Fiber Geometry on Plastic Shrinkage Cracking in Concrete.” Cement and Concrete Research 36, no. 7 (2006): 1263–67. doi:10.1016/j.cemconres.2006.01.010.

Puertas, F., T. Amat, A. Fernández-Jiménez, and T. Vázquez. “Mechanical and Durable Behaviour of Alkaline Cement Mortars Reinforced with Polypropylene Fibres.” Cement and Concrete Research 33, no. 12 (2003): 2031–36. doi:10.1016/S0008-8846(03)00222-9.

Yao, Yin, and Shaohua Chen. “The Effects of Fiber’s Surface Roughness on the Mechanical Properties of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites.” Journal of Composite Materials 47, no. 23 (2013): 2909–23. doi:10.1177/0021998312459871.

Lu, W., X. Fu, and D. D.L. Chung. “A Comparative Study of the Wettability of Steel, Carbon, and Polyethylene Fibersby Water.” Cement and Concrete Research 28, no. 6 (1998): 783–86. doi:10.1016/S0008-8846(98)00056-8.

Noushini, Amin, Max Hastings, Arnaud Castel, and Farhad Aslani. “Mechanical and Flexural Performance of Synthetic Fibre Reinforced Geopolymer Concrete.” Construction and Building Materials 186 (2018): 454–75. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.07.110.

ASTM:C157/C157M-08. Standard Test Method for Length Change of Hardened Hydraulic-Cement Mortar and Concrete. ASTM International. Vol. 08. American Society for Testing and Materials, (2008).

Mustafa Al Bakri, A. M., H. Kamarudin, M. Bnhussain, Khairul Nizar, A. R. Rafiza, and Y. Zarina. “The Processing, Characterization, and Properties of Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Concrete.” Reviews on Advanced Materials Science 30, no. 1 (2012): 90–97.

Iraqi Specification. “Aggregate from Natural Sources for Concrete.” Central Agency for Standardization and Quality Control, Planning Council, Baghdad, IRAQ, 1984.

Castel, A., S. J. Foster, T. Ng, J. G. Sanjayan, and R. I. Gilbert. “Creep and Drying Shrinkage of a Blended Slag and Low Calcium Fly Ash Geopolymer Concrete.” Materials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions 49, no. 5 (2016): 1619–28. doi:10.1617/s11527-015-0599-1.

Ranjbar, Navid, Mehdi Mehrali, Arash Behnia, Alireza Javadi Pordsari, Mohammad Mehrali, U. Johnson Alengaram, and Mohd Zamin Jumaat. “A Comprehensive Study of the Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Fly Ash Based Geopolymer.” PLoS ONE 11, no. 1 (2016): 147546. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147546.

Sagoe-Crentsil, Kwesi, Trevor Brown, and Alan Taylor. “Drying Shrinkage and Creep Performance of Geopolymer Concrete.” Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials 2, no. 1 (2013): 35–42. doi:10.1080/21650373.2013.764963.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-2021-03091780


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 MUSHTAQ H KAMIL, Qais J. Frieh

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.