Creation and Spatial Analysis of 3D City Modeling based on GIS Data

Heba K. Khayyal, Zaki M. Zeidan, Ashraf A. A. Beshr


The 3D city model is one of the crucial topics that are still under analysis by many engineers and programmers because of the great advancements in data acquisition technologies and 3D computer graphics programming. It is one of the best visualization methods for representing reality. This paper presents different techniques for the creation and spatial analysis of 3D city modeling based on Geographical Information System (GIS) technology using free data sources. To achieve that goal, the Mansoura University campus, located in Mansoura city, Egypt, was chosen as a case study. The minimum data requirements to generate a 3D city model are the terrain, 2D spatial features such as buildings, landscape area and street networks. Moreover, building height is an important attribute in the 3D extrusion process. The main challenge during the creation process is the dearth of accurate free datasets, and the time-consuming editing. Therefore, different data sources are used in this study to evaluate their accuracy and find suitable applications which can use the generated 3D model. Meanwhile, an accurate data source obtained using the traditional survey methods is used for the validation purpose. First, the terrain was obtained from a digital elevation model (DEM) and compared with grid leveling measurements. Second, 2D data were obtained from: the manual digitization from (30 cm) high-resolution imagery, and deep learning structure algorithms to detect the 2D features automatically using an object instance segmentation model and compared the results with the total station survey observations. Different techniques are used to investigate and evaluate the accuracy of these data sources. The procedural modeling technique is applied to generate the 3D city model. TensorFlow & Keras frameworks (Python APIs) were used in this paper; moreover, global mapper, ArcGIS Pro, QGIS and CityEngine software were used. The precision metrics from the trained deep learning model were 0.78 for buildings, 0.62 for streets and 0.89 for landscape areas. Despite, the manual digitizing results are better than the results from deep learning, but the extracted features accuracy is accepted and can be used in the creation process in the cases not require a highly accurate 3D model. The flood impact scenario is simulated as an application of spatial analysis on the generated 3D city model.


Doi: 10.28991/CEJ-2022-08-01-08

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2D Digital Map; 3D City Model; Deep Learning; Procedural Modelling; Web-GIS.


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DOI: 10.28991/CEJ-2022-08-01-08


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