Status and Challenges of Medical Waste Management in Hospitals of Iran

Akbar Eslami, Parviz Nowrouz, Samira Sheikholeslami


Medical waste is of great importance due to its hazardous nature that can cause undesirable effects on humans and the environment. This study focuses on medical waste management in hospitals of Iran. Data were collected based on questionnaires and for self-report of medical waste management. The results along with other information were sent to the ministry of health network system. Results indicated that the mean generation rate of non-hazardous and sharp and infectious and total wastes in Iran were, respectively, 1.84, 1.09 (36.9% of total waste generated) and 2.98 kg/bed/day. Chemical waste generation rate in Iran is 0.02 kg/bed/day (0.68%) that relative to infectious waste and total waste generation rate is much lower which could be due to improper segregation of medical wastes. There is significant differences between private and governmental hospitals, in terms of infectious and sharp waste generation rates (P=0.027). Also there are significant differences between specialized and general hospitals in group of non-hazardous waste (P=0.039), infectious waste (P=0.001) and total waste generation rate (P=0.02). 65.41% of governmental hospitals used autoclave for infectious waste treatment. In the private and governmental hospitals 14.8% and 24.29%, respectively not have any treatment devices and hazardous waste was disposed without treatment.


Medical Waste Management; Infectious Waste Treatment; Hospital; Iran.


Birpınar, Mehmet Emin, Mehmet Sinan Bilgili, and Tuğba Erdoğan. "Medical waste management in Turkey: A case study of Istanbul." Waste Management 29, no. 1 (2009): 445-448.

Yong, Zhang, Xiao Gang, Wang Guanxing, Zhou Tao, and Jiang Dawei. "Medical waste management in China: a case study of Nanjing." Waste management 29, no. 4 (2009): 1376-1382.

Geng, Yong, Wan-xia Ren, Bing Xue, Tsuyoshi Fujita, Feng-ming Xi, Ye Liu, and Mei-ling Wang. "Regional medical waste management in China: a case study of Shenyang." Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management 15, no. 3 (2013): 310-320.

Komilis, Dimitrios, Anastassia Fouki, and Dimitrios Papadopoulos. "Hazardous medical waste generation rates of different categories of health-care facilities." Waste Management 32, no. 7 (2012): 1434-1441.

Oli, A.N, et al. "Healthcare waste management in selected government and private hospitals in Southeast Nigeria." Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 6 (2016): 84-89.

Bdour, A, et al. "Assessment of medical wastes management practice: A case study of the northern part of Jordan." Waste Management 27 (2007): 746-759.

Cheng, Y. W., F. C. Sung, Y. Yang, Y. H. Lo, Y. T. Chung, and K-C. Li. "Medical waste production at hospitals and associated factors." Waste Management 29, no. 1 (2009): 440-444.

Manga, Veronica E., Osric Tening Forton, Linus A. Mofor, and Ryan Woodard. "Health care waste management in Cameroon: A case study from the Southwestern Region." Resources, Conservation and Recycling 57 (2011): 108-116.

Qdais, H.A, Rabi A, and Abdulla F. "Characteristics of the medical waste generated at the Jordanian hospitals." Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy 9 (2007): 147-152.

Maamari, Olivia, Cedric Brandam, Roger Lteif, and Dominique Salameh. "Health Care Waste generation rates and patterns: The case of Lebanon." Waste management 43 (2015): 550-554.

Xin, Y. "Comparison of hospital medical waste generation rate based on diagnosis-related groups." Journal of Cleaner Production 100 (2015): 202-207.

Sartaj, M. and Arabgol R. "Assessment of healthcare waste management practices and associated problems in Isfahan Province (Iran)." Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management 17 (2015): 99-106.

Da Silva, C, et al. "Medical wastes management in the south of Brazil." Waste management 25 (2005): 600-605.

Taghipour, H and Mosaferi M. "Characterization of medical waste from hospitals in Tabriz, Iran." Science of The Total Environment 40 (2009): 1527-1535.

Windfeld, E.S. and Brooks M.S.-L. "Medical waste management – A review." Journal of Environmental Management 163 (2015): 98-108.

Oroei, M, et al. "A qualitative study of the causes of improper segregation of infectious waste at Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz, Iran." Journal of Infection and Public Health 7 (2014): 192-198.

Khazaee, Manoochehr, Amir Hossein Hamidian, Mohmmad Taheri, Touran Babakan, Ali Mashoof, and A. Khazaee. "Assessment of medical waste management in Karaj hospitals, Iran." Inter Res J App Basic Sci 9, no. 10 (2015): 1750-57.

Ministry of Health. "Instructions of complete and declaration of medical waste treatment and self-reported of hospitals. 2014.

Askarian, M, Vakili M., and Kabir G. "Results of a hospital waste survey in private hospitals in Fars province, Iran." Waste management 24 (2004): 347-352.

Windfeld, Elliott Steen, and Marianne Su-Ling Brooks. "Medical waste management–A review." Journal of environmental management 163 (2015): 98-108.

Hadipour, M., et al. "Measurement and management of hospital waste in southern Iran: a case study." Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management 16 (2014): 747-752.

Tsakona, M, Anagnostopoulou E, and Gidarakos E. "Hospital waste management and toxicity evaluation: a case study." Waste management 27 (2007): 912-920.

Diaz, L. F., L. L. Eggerth, S. H. Enkhtsetseg, and G. M. Savage. "Characteristics of healthcare wastes." Waste management 28, no. 7 (2008): 1219-1226.

Komilis, D, Katsafaros N, and Vassilopoulos P. "Hazardous medical waste generation in Greece: case studies from medical facilities in Attica and from a small insular hospital." Waste Management & Research 29 (2011): 807-814.

Sanida, G, et al. "Assessing generated quantities of infectious medical wastes: A case study for a health region administration in Central Macedonia, Greece." Waste Management 30 (2010): 532-538.

Chartier, Y, et al. "Safe management of wastes from health-care activities." 2013.

Bazrafshan, E, and Mostafapoor F.K. "Survey of medical waste characterization and management in Iran: a case study of Sistan and Baluchestan Province." Waste Management & Research 29 (2010): 442-450

Ananth, A. Prem, V. Prashanthini, and C. Visvanathan. "Healthcare waste management in Asia." Waste Management 30, no. 1 (2010): 154-161.

Mmereki, D, et al. "Healthcare waste management in Botswana: storage, collection, treatment and disposal system." Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management 19 (2015): 1-15.

Voudrias, E, et al. "Composition and production rate of pharmaceutical and chemical waste from Xanthi General Hospital in Greece." Waste Management 32 (2012): 1442-1452.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.21859/cej-030910


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Parviz Nowrouz, Akbar Eslami, Samira Sheikholeslami

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.