Evaluating Groundwater Quality Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis and Groundwater Quality Index

Nguyen Quoc Pham, Giao Thanh Nguyen


Under pressure from surface water pollution and climate change, groundwater becomes a critical water source. Information on groundwater quality could contribute to effective groundwater management. This study was carried out to utilize multivariate statistical analysis and the groundwater quality index (GWQI) to evaluate groundwater quality in Ca Mau Province, Vietnam. Twenty-five groundwater samples from residential-urban areas, cemetery areas, landfill areas, and saline intrusion areas were collected for this study. Groundwater quality was evaluated using the National Technical Regulation on Groundwater Quality (QCVN 09-MT:2015/BTNMT) and GWQI. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify potential polluting sources and key variables influencing groundwater quality. Cluster analysis (CA) was applied to cluster groundwater quality, and the sites were recommended for future monitoring. The results revealed that NH4+-N contaminated groundwater in the landfill area, while the saline intrusion area was polluted by TDS and NH4+-N. The groundwater quality classified as excellent, good, poor, and very poor accounted for 44, 40%, 12%, and 4%, respectively. Cluster analysis divided groundwater quality into four groups, mainly based on the presence of NH4+-N and TDS. Nine groundwater sampling locations could be removed from the current groundwater quality program but still ensuring representativeness as a result of CA. PCA proposed two main sources of variation in groundwater quality at each residential-urban area: the cemetery area, the landfilling area, and the saline intrusion area. The groundwater parameters (i.e., pH, TDS, permanganate index, NH4+-N, NO3--N, and Fe) should be continued to monitor. Domestic and industrial wastewater discharge, leachate from cemeteries and landfills, the nature of groundwater aquifers, and seawater intrusion could be potential sources of groundwater variation. The current findings provide scientific information for local environmental authorities to manage and monitor groundwater quality in the study area.


Doi: 10.28991/CEJ-2024-010-03-03

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Ammonium; Ca Mau Peninsula; Groundwater Quality Index (GWQI); Multivariate Analysis.


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DOI: 10.28991/CEJ-2024-010-03-03


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