Road Pricing Effect on the Emission of Traffic Pollutants, a Case Study in Tehran

Mansour Hadji Hosseinlou, Abbas Zolfaghari, Mahdi Yazdanpanah


Road pricing is one of the main purposes of traffic management policies in order to reduce personal car use. Understanding the behaviour of drivers under the impact of the road pricing policy, can assist transportation planners in making better and more efficient decisions. This research aims at investigating the reactions of private car users to road pricing using stated preference (SP) method on the one hand, and on the other hand, studies the road pricing effect on traffic flow and pollutants. To this aim, the acceptance rate of pricing, which is obtained from modeling of survey data, as well as real traffic flow data in Shahid Hemmat Highway in Tehran, Iran, are applied as the simulation software input. Based on the results of this research, at the lowest price (TN11000), the contribution of toll acceptance is equal to 64/91 percent. The fuel consumption rate at this price decreases to 49/91% and the emission rate of CO2, NOx, particle material (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollutants decrease to 56.82%, 49.46%, 36.8% and 63.17%, respectively. At the highest price (TN10000), toll acceptability, fuel consumption, CO2, NOx, PM and VOC emission rates decrease to 5.47%, 3.57%, 3.98%, 2.85%, 1.22% and 4.86%, respectively.


Road Pricing; Stated Preference Method; Binary Logit Model; Traffic Pollutants; Willingness-to-Pay.


Euopean Environment Agency, Annual European Community LRTAP Convention Emission Inventory Report 1990–2006.

Li, Zheng, John M. Rose, and David Hensher. "Forecasting petrol demand and assessing the impact of selective strategies to reduce fuel consumption." Transportation Planning and Technology 33, no. 5 (2010): 407-421.

BITRE. "Estimating Urban Traffic and Congestion Cost Trends for Australian Cities." Working Paper 71. Bureau of Transport and Regional Economics, Australian Government (2007).

Schrank, David, Bill Eisele, and Tim Lomax. "TTI’s 2012 urban mobility report." Texas A&M Transportation Institute. The Texas A&M University System (2012).

Litman, T. Online TDM Encyclopedia. Available from: (2013).

Pigou, A. C. "The Economics of Welfare, McMillan, London." (1920).

Goh, Mark. "Congestion management and electronic road pricing in Singapore." Journal of Transport Geography 10, no. 1 (2002): 29-38.

Langmyhr, Tore. "Learning from road pricing experience: introducing a second-generation road pricing system." Planning Theory & Practice 2, no. 1 (2001): 67-80.

Phang, Sock-Yong, and Rex S. Toh. "Road congestion pricing in Singapore: 1975 to 2003." Transportation Journal (2004): 16-25.

Jensen-Butler, Chris, Brigitte Sloth, Morten M. Larsen, Bjarne Madsen, and Otto A. Nielsen, eds. Road pricing, the economy and the environment. Springer Science & Business Media, 2008.

Rotaris, Lucia, Romeo Danielis, Edoardo Marcucci, and Jérôme Massiani. "The urban road pricing scheme to curb pollution in Milan, Italy: Description, impacts and preliminary cost–benefit analysis assessment." Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 44, no. 5 (2010): 359-375.

Transport for London, TfL. "Central London congestion charging: impacts monitoring: Sixth Annual Report." (2008).

Central London congestion scheme consultation with the public and stake holders, Tfl's report to the mayor on the congestion charging scheme variation order consultation, April 2014,

Eliasson, Jonas. "A cost–benefit analysis of the Stockholm congestion charging system." Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 43, no. 4 (2009): 468-480.

Verhoef, Erik T., Peter Nijkamp, and Piet Rietveld. "The social feasibility of road pricing: a case study for the Randstad area." Journal of Transport Economics and Policy (1997): 255-276.

Schuitema, Geertje, Linda Steg, and Sonja Forward. "Explaining differences in acceptability before and acceptance after the implementation of a congestion charge in Stockholm." Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 44, no. 2 (2010): 99-109.

Azari, Kian Ahmadi, Sulistyo Arintono, Hussain Hamid, and Riza Atiq OK Rahmat. "Modelling demand under parking and cordon pricing policy." Transport Policy 25 (2013): 1-9.

Azari, Kian Ahmadi, Sulistyo Arintono, Hussain Hamid, and Seyed Rasoul Davoodi. "Evaluation of demand for different trip purposes under various congestion pricing scenarios." Journal of Transport Geography 29 (2013): 43-51.

Yusuf, Juita-Elena Wie, Lenahan O’Connell, and Khairul A. Anuar. "For whom the tunnel be tolled: A four-factor model for explaining willingness-to-pay tolls." Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 59 (2014): 13-21.

Washbrook, Kevin, Wolfgang Haider, and Mark Jaccard. "Estimating commuter mode choice: A discrete choice analysis of the impact of road pricing and parking charges." Transportation 33, no. 6 (2006): 621-639.

Green, Paul E., and Venkatachary Srinivasan. "Conjoint analysis in consumer research: issues and outlook." Journal of consumer research 5, no. 2 (1978): 103-123.

Ortúzar, J.D., Willumsen, L.G. "Modelling Transport", third ed. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK, (1990).

Louviere, Jordan J., David A. Hensher, and Joffre D. Swait. Stated choice methods: analysis and applications. Cambridge University Press, 2000.

McFadden, Daniel. "Modeling the choice of residential location." Transportation Research Record 673 (1978).

TTTO (Tehran traffic and Transportation Organization and Deputy). "Selective statistics for transport and traffic in Tehran.", (2014).

TTD (Traffic and Transportation Deputy of Tehran Municipality). "Reasons justifying the construction and completion of the West Hemmat Highway.", (2011).

TTTO (Tehran traffic and Transportation Organization and Deputy). "An overview of Tehran Transportation Master Plan.", (2013).

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-2016-00000035


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Mansour Hadji Hosseinlou, Abbas Zolfaghari, Mahdi Yazdanpanah

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.