Public Evaluation of Speed Humps Performance and Effectiveness

Sayed Shwaly, Amal AL-Ayaat, Mohamed Hamed Zakaria


In Egypt, it is believed that speed humps are the cheapest and best solutions to reduce vehicles speed and thus reduce the number of potential accidents. Due to the lack of specifications in Egypt that govern the installation of speed humps, they were spread randomly and with different dimensions without adequate studies. Consequently, this practice can cause adverse effects on the road users and the surrounding environment. For this purpose, a questionnaire was designed to discuss the different effects of using speed humps in Kafr El-Sheikh city as a typical model in the Egyptian cities. To verify that the questionnaire is appropriate for the intended task, it was evaluated by 30 respondents aged 18 years and over. After the trial process, the required corrections were made to the proposed form of the questionnaire. Then, final questionnaires were distributed and 1000 responses were collected from all road users, whether they were pedestrians, drivers, owners of vehicles or vehicle repairmen by using face-to-face interviews. The responses were analysed using SPSS program. The results reflected that the installation of speed humps contributed greatly to reduce vehicles speed, the flow of traffic and accidents rate. On the other hand, the results proved that humps also contribute significantly to the environmental pollution, damage to the pavement and vehicles especially when they are poorly designed and located. The majority of respondents attributed the random spread of the speed humps to the weakness of the authorities in law enforcement and the prevention of the installation of new humps without authorization. Finally, with the widespread use of speed humps and with the exception of the positive impact on traffic safety, it also has negative impacts on both the economy and the environment. Finally, the use of speed humps can cause many harmful effects to the neighbourhood, if there no strict control on its installation process. Unless specifications and some standards should be strictly followed, other means of traffic calming measures should be considered.


Speed Hump; Questionnaire; Traffic Calming; Accident; Public Evaluation.


Vaitkus, Audrius, et al. "Traffic Calming Measures: An Evaluation of the Effect on Driving Speed." PROMET –Traffic &Transportation 29.3 (2017): 275-285.doi: 10.7307/ptt.v29i3.2265. ‏

World Health Organization. Global status report on road safety 2015. World Health Organization, 2015. ‏

Lockwood, Ian M. "ITE traffic calming definition." Institute of Transportation Engineers. ITE Journal 67.7 (1997): 22.

Faheem, Hamdy. " Suitability of existing traffic calming measures for use on some highways in Egypt." 9th International Conference on Civil and Architecture Engineering Cairo. 2012.

Faheem, Hamdy. "Effectiveness of using cat-eye reflectors as warning and traffic calming devices in local roads and highways." 3rd International Conference on Road Safety and Simulation, Indianapolis. 2011.

Abdel-Wahed, Talaat Ali, and Ibrahim Hassan Hashim. "Effect of speed hump characteristics on pavement condition." Journal of traffic and transportation engineering (English edition) 4.1 (2017): 103-110.

Transport Research Centre. (2006). "Speed Management." OECD Publishing; 2006 Oct 13; Available from:

Svara, James H., Tanya C. Watt, and Hee Soun Jang. "How are US cities doing sustainability? Who is getting on the sustainability train, and why?" Cityscape (2013): 9-44.

Ewing, Reid. Traffic Calming State of the Practice Slide Seminar. Institute of Transportation Engineers. Federal Highway Administration September, 1999.

Ahn, Kyoungho, and Hesham Rakha. “A Field Evaluation Case Study of the Environmental and Energy Impacts of Traffic Calming.” Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 14.6 (2009): 411–424.

Atkins, Crysttal, and Michael Coleman. "The influence of traffic calming on emergency response times." Institute of Transportation Engineers. ITE Journal 67.8 (1997): 42.

Chang, Kevin, Matthew Nolan, and Nancy Nihan. "Developing design standards for speed cushions." Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2030 (2007): 22-28. doi: 10.3141/2030-04.

Radhiah binti Bachok, Khairun Sarah et al. “Residents’ Perceptions on the Effectiveness of Road Humps in Improving Malaysian Residential Environments.” Proceedings of the 2nd World Congress on Civil, Structural, and Environmental Engineering (2017). doi: 10.11159/icte17.124.

Lee, Gunwoo et al. “An Evaluation Framework for Traffic Calming Measures in Residential Areas.” Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 25 (2013): 68–76. Crossref. Web. doi: 10.1016/j.trd.2013.08.002.

Kordani, Ali Abdi et al. “Simulation Modeling of Dynamic Response of Vehicles to Different Types of Speed Control Humps.” T&DI Congress 2014 (2014). Available from:

Khorshid, Emad, Fatma AlAli, and Mohamed Alfares. “Performance Analysis of Speed Control Humps and Dips Based on Health and Comfort Criteria.” International Journal of Vehicle Noise and Vibration 13.3/4 (2017): 295. doi: 10.1504/ijvnv.2017.089528.

Engel, Ulla, and Lars K. Thomsen. “Safety Effects of Speed Reducing Measures in Danish Residential Areas.” Accident Analysis & Prevention 24.1 (1992): 17–28. doi: 10.1016/0001-4575(92)90068-t

Antić, Boris et al. “The Influence of Speed Bumps Heights to the Decrease of the Vehicle Speed – Belgrade Experience.” Safety Science 57 (2013): 303–312. doi: 10.1016/j.ssci.2013.03.008.

Mahdy, Hassan. “Speed Calming Using Vertical Deflections in Road Alignment.” CICTP 2012 (2012): n. pag. Crossref. Web. doi: 10.1061/9780784412442.212.

Clitan, Andrei-Florin. “OPTIMIZATION OF SPEED HUMPS IN ORDER TO IMPROVE THE TRAFFIC AND REDUCE POLLUTION.” 17th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM2017, Ecology, Economics, Education and Legislation (2017). doi: 10.5593/sgem2017/52/s20.088.

Liu, Rongfang, et al. Visual preference survey of traffic calming measures. No. 06-1151. 2006.

Chukwugozi, Richard Paul. “Is Speed Bumps Installation Panacea For Road Traffic Crash Prevention? An Evaluation of Selected Major Routes in Ondo, Southwestern Nigeria.” IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science 19.5 (2014): 79–98.

Al-Omari, Bashar H., and Hashem R. Al-Masaeid. "Effect of speed humps on traffic delay in Jordan." Road & Transport Research 11.4 (2002): 49.

ROSLI, Nur Shazwani, and Abdul Azeez KADAR HAMSA. "Evaluating the effects of road hump on traffic volume and noise level at Taman Keramat residential area, Kuala Lumpur." Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies 10 (2013): 1171-1188.

Behzad, M., M. Hodaei, and I. Alimohammadi. “Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Effect of a Speed Bump on Car Noise Emission Level.” Applied Acoustics 68.11-12 (2007): 1346–1356. doi : 10.1016/j.apacoust.2006.07.003.

Kokowski, Piotr, and Rufin Makarewicz. “Predicted Effects of a Speed Bump on Light Vehicle Noise.” Applied Acoustics 67.6 (2006): 570–579. doi: 10.1016/j.apacoust.2005.10.001.

Lee, Tae Keun, and Byoung Sam Kim. “Vibration Analysis of Automobile Tire Due to Bump Impact.” Applied Acoustics 69.6 (2008): 473–478. doi: 10.1016/j.apacoust.2007.12.003.

Watts, G.R, and V.V Krylov. “Ground-Borne Vibration Generated by Vehicles Crossing Road Humps and Speed Control Cushions.” Applied Acoustics 59.3 (2000): 221–236. doi: 10.1016/s0003-682x(99)00026-2.

Bekheet, Wael. “Short Term Performance and Effect of Speed Humps on Pavement Condition of Alexandria Governorate Roads.” Alexandria Engineering Journal 53.4 (2014): 855–861. doi: 10.1016/j.aej.2014.09.009.

Gault, Robert H. “A History of the Questionnaire Method of Research in Psychology.” The Pedagogical Seminary 14.3 (1907): 366–383. doi: 10.1080/08919402.1907.10532551.

Bulmer, Martin. “Questionnaires.” (2004). doi: 10.4135/9781446263204.

Dibben, Christopher, and David K Chester. “Human Vulnerability in Volcanic Environments: The Case of Furnas, São Miguel, Azores.” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 92.1-2 (1999): 133–150. doi: 10.1016/s0377-0273(99)00072-4.

Anderson-Berry, Linda J. Natural Hazards 30.2 (2003): 209–232. doi: 10.1023/a:1026170401823.

Dominey-Howes, Dale, and Despina Minos-Minopoulos. “Perceptions of Hazard and Risk on Santorini.” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 137.4 (2004): 285–310. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2004.06.002.

Johnston, D. et al. “Measuring Tsunami Preparedness in Coastal Washington, United States.” Developing Tsunami-Resilient Communities 173–184. Crossref. Web. doi: 10.1007/1-4020-3607-8_12.

Flowerdew, Robin, and David M. Martin. "Questionnaire design and sampling." Methods in human geography. Routledge, 2008. 102-133.

McGuirk, Pauline M., and Phillip O'Neill. "Using questionnaires in qualitative human geography." (2016): 246.

Sullivan, Gail M., and Anthony R. Artino. “Analyzing and Interpreting Data From Likert-Type Scales.” Journal of Graduate Medical Education 5.4 (2013): 541–542. doi: 10.4300/jgme-5-4-18.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-0309168


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Mohamed Hamed Zakaria

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.