Construction Network Ventilation System for Underground LPG Storage Cavern

Fang Lin


Construction ventilation system is divided into two stages based on completion status of shafts in the underground petroleum storage project in Jinzhou, China. With the help of theoretical analysis and numerical simulations by using FLUENT software, in the first stage, reasonable construction ventilation is designed and cases with different outside temperature are discussed to investigate the effect of ventilation performance. It is found that with temperature difference increases, peak value of CO concentration, exhausting time of dirty air and required time to meet the CO concentration qualification decrease, but the influence degree is quite limited. Gallery-type network ventilation technique (GNVT) refined from theories of operation ventilation for road tunnel and mining ventilation network, is proposed to conduct the second stage construction ventilation. Ventilation performance of different ventilation schemes with various shafts’ states and diverse arrangements of fans are also analyzed in this study. It turns out that Axial-GNVT with shafts taking in fresh air and access tunnel ejecting dirty air has much better performance than traditional forced ventilation from access tunnel. Improved energy saving scheme is finally adopted to guide the construction. In addition, it is worth mentioning that there is no need to build middle ventilation shafts and construct shafts as large and long as possible. Field test of wind speed, dust, poisonous gas, atmospheric pressure, temperature are performed to detect ventilation effectiveness. Reduction coefficient =0.69is obtained from the test results in consideration of super-large section and it also indicates that there is no difference if the axial fan is at the shaft mouth or in the bottom.


Underground Petroleum Storage Caverns; Construction Ventilation System; Computational Fluid Dynamics; Ventilation Network.


Kiyoyama, S. “The present state of underground crude oil storage technology in Japan.” Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology: 1990, 5(4), 343-9. DOI: 10.1016/0886-7798(90)90129-8.

Bittkow, P., Riechel, M., Boor, G. “Management of a complex cavern storage facility for natural gas.” In: Proceedings of the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition: 1997, pp. 219-228. DOI: 10.2118/38865-MS.

Hamberger, U. “Case History: Blowout at an LPG storage cavern in Sweden.” Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology: 1991, 6, 119-120. DOI: 10.1016/0886-7798(91)90012-S.

Lee, Y.N., Suh, Y.H., Kim, D.Y., Jue, K.S. “Stress and deformation behavior of oil storage caverns during excavation.” International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences: 1997, 34, 573. DOI: 10.1016/s0148-9062(97)00245-3.

Sturk, R., Stille, H. “Design and excavation of rock caverns for fuel storage - A case study from Zimbabwe.” Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology: 1995, 10, 193-201. DOI: 10.1016/0886-7798(95)00007-l.

Winqvist, T. “Proposed future underground projects in Sweden.” Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology: 1989, 4, 143-149. DOI: 10.1016/0886-7798(89)90047-3.

Zhao, J., Bergh-Christensen, J. “Construction and utilization of rock caverns in Singapore - Part D: Two proposed cavern schemes.” Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology: 1996, 11, 85-91. DOI: 10.1016/0886-7798(96)00057-0.

Zhao, J., Choa, V., Broms, B.B. “Construction and utilization of rock caverns in Singapore - Part B: Development costs and utilization.” Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology: 1996, 11, 73-79. DOI: 10.1016/0886-7798(96)00055-7.

Park, J.J., Jeon, S., Chung, Y.S. “Design of Pyongtaek LPG storage terminal underneath Lake Namyang: A case study.” Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology: 2005, 20, 463-478. DOI: 10.1016/j.tust.2005.03.001.

Sun, J.P., Zhao, Z.Y., Zhang, Y. “Determination of three dimensional hydraulic conductivities using a combined analytical/neural network model.” Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology: 2011, 26 (2), 310–319. DOI: 10.1016/j.tust.2010.11.002.

Goel, R.K., Singh, B., Zhao, J. “Underground Infrastructures: Planning, Design, and Construction. Butterworth-Heinemann.” Oxford, 2012.

Bai Y., Zhou D.Q., Zhou P. “Modeling and analysis of oil import tariff and stockpile policies for coping with supply disruptions.” Applied Energy: 2012, 97, 84-90.

Lin, F., Luan, H., Ma, G. and Chen, S. “TEM improves groundwater inflow estimates in undergound storage.” Oil & Gas Journal: 2015, 113(11), pp.78-87.

Lin, F., Ren, F., Luan, H., Ma, G. and Chen, S. “Effectiveness analysis of water-sealing for underground LPG storage.” Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology: 2016, 51, pp.270-290. DOI: 10.1016/j.tust.2015.10.039.

Jurani, R.S. “Ventilation design for the exploratory shaft facility Yucca Mountain Project.” Proc 1st Int Top Meet High Level Radioact Waste Manage Part 1: 1990, p51-57.

Rezaei, Z. et al. “Modeling of the reliability of ventilation networks.” 9th International Multidicsciplinary Scientific Geoconference and EXPO - Modern Management of Mine Producing, Geology and Environmental Protection, Int. Multidicsciplinary Sci. Geoconf. EXPO - Mod. Manage. Mine Producing, Geology Environ. Protection, SGEM 2009, v1, p537-544.

Cornel, S.M., Victor, A., Constantin, L., Doru, C., Emilian, G. and Nicolae, V. “Prospective virtual simulation of ventilation networks.” International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference: SGEM: Surveying Geology & mining Ecology Management, 1, 2013, p.617. DOI: 10.5593/SGEM2013/BA1.V1/S03.052.

Li, X.C. “Research on the skill of ventilation for underground hydraulic-sealing group caverns construction.” Master Thesis, Southwest Jiaotong University, 2013.

Zhang, H. “Construction ventilation technology of complex network tunnel group.” PhD Thesis, Southwest Jiaotong University, 2013.

Zeng, X. “Study on construction ventilation of large hydropower station underground caverns.” Master Thesis, Southwest Jiaotong University, 2014.

Wang, Y.J. “Solving mine ventilation networks with fixed and non-fixed branches.” Mining Engineering (Littleton, Colorado); (USA), 1990, 42(12).

Sarac, S. and Sensogut, C. “Mathematical solutions to the multiple-fan ventilation systems.” Journal-South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy 2000, 100(3), pp.205-209.

Parra, M.T., Villafruela, J.M., Castro, F. and Mendez, C. “Numerical and experimental analysis of different ventilation systems in deep mines.” Building and Environment 2006, 41(2), pp.87-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2005.01.002.

Zegeer, D. “Core Drilling for Air. Cost Cut Substantially by Drilling Shaft for Auxiliary Ventilation of Haulageway.” Coal Age: 1950, 55(2), pp.92-6.

Sato, T., Imazu, M., Mikake, S., Tamai, T., Yamamoto, M. and Sakamaki, M. “Status of Japanese Underground Research Laboratory–Design and construction of 1000m-deep shafts and research tunnels.” Atlas of Oculoplastic and Orbital Surgery: 2009, p.335. DOI: 10.1201/noe0415374521.ch51.

Hu, Z.L. and Yu, X.l. “Ventilation design for 6# metro in Guangzhou.” Urban rapid rail transit 2007, 20(1), pp. 47-51.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-0309192


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Fang Lin

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.