Characterizing Infrastructure Resilience in Disasters Using Dynamic Network Analysis of Consumers’ Service Disruption Patterns

Hadi Nazarnia, Hadi Sarmasti


This study proposes a network analysis framework for characterizing infrastructure resilience in the aftermath of disasters through the use of consumers’ service disruption information. In the presented framework, the notion of “peers” is used to construct the network models of consumers experiencing service disruption in the aftermath of a disaster to understand the type and extent of infrastructure damages and specify disruption patterns. Data related to electricity disruption in Bhaktapur, Nepal, in the aftermath of the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake is used to construct the network models of consumers’ networks at different points in time in the aftermath of the disaster. The created models are then used in network analysis for examining the network topological characteristics (such as clustering) and specifying the attributes of service disruption. The contribution of this paper lie in: (i) the development and validation of a novel network from disruption information, (ii) identify the extent of infrastructure disruption, type of damage, and recoverability from changes in network topology over time.


Disaster; Resilience; Infrastructure Systems; Network Analysis; 2015 Gorkha Earthquake.


Barker, Kash, Jose Emmanuel Ramirez-Marquez, and Claudio M. Rocco. “Resilience-Based Network Component Importance Measures.” Reliability Engineering & System Safety 117 (September 2013): 89–97. doi:10.1016/j.ress.2013.03.012.

Didier, Max, Marco Broccardo, Simona Esposito, and Bozidar Stojadinovic. “A Compositional Demand/supply Framework to Quantify the Resilience of Civil Infrastructure Systems (Re-CoDeS).” Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure 3, no. 2 (September 12, 2017): 86–102. doi:10.1080/23789689.2017.1364560.

Gay, Leon F., and Sunil K. Sinha. “Resilience of Civil Infrastructure Systems: Literature Review for Improved Asset Management.” International Journal of Critical Infrastructures 9, no. 4 (2013): 330. doi:10.1504/ijcis.2013.058172.

Gao, Jianxi, Baruch Barzel, and Albert-László Barabási. “Universal Resilience Patterns in Complex Networks.” Nature 530, no. 7590 (February 17, 2016): 307–312. doi:10.1038/nature16948.

Zio, Enrico, Giovanni Sansavini, Roberto Maja, and Giovanna Marchionni. “An Analytical Approach to the Safety of Road Networks.” International Journal of Reliability, Quality and Safety Engineering 15, no. 01 (February 2008): 67–76. doi:10.1142/s0218539308002939.

Holmgren, Ake J. “Using Graph Models to Analyze the Vulnerability of Electric Power Networks.” Risk Analysis 26, no. 4 (August 2006): 955–969. doi:10.1111/j.1539-6924.2006.00791.x.

Hosseini, Seyedmohsen, Kash Barker, and Jose E. Ramirez-Marquez. “A Review of Definitions and Measures of System Resilience.” Reliability Engineering & System Safety 145 (January 2016): 47–61. doi:10.1016/j.ress.2015.08.006.

Porta, Sergio, Paolo Crucitti, and Vito Latora. “The Network Analysis of Urban Streets: A Dual Approach.” Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and Its Applications 369, no. 2 (September 2006): 853–866. doi:10.1016/j.physa.2005.12.063.

Zhao, Kang, Akhil Kumar, Terry P. Harrison, and John Yen. “Analyzing the Resilience of Complex Supply Network Topologies Against Random and Targeted Disruptions.” IEEE Systems Journal 5, no. 1 (March 2011): 28–39. doi:10.1109/jsyst.2010.2100192.

Masucci, A. P., D. Smith, A. Crooks, and M. Batty. “Random Planar Graphs and the London Street Network.” The European Physical Journal B 71, no. 2 (August 18, 2009): 259–271. doi:10.1140/epjb/e2009-00290-4.

Bompard, Ettore, Roberto Napoli, and Fei Xue. “Analysis of Structural Vulnerabilities in Power Transmission Grids.” International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection 2, no. 1–2 (May 2009): 5–12. doi:10.1016/j.ijcip.2009.02.002.

Crucitti, Paolo, Vito Latora, and Massimo Marchiori. "Locating critical lines in high-voltage electrical power grids." Fluctuation and Noise Letters 5, no. 02 (2005): L201-L208. doi:10.1142/s0219477505002562.

Yazdani, A., and P. Jeffrey. “Applying Network Theory to Quantify the Redundancy and Structural Robustness of Water Distribution Systems.” Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management 138, no. 2 (March 2012): 153–161. doi:10.1061/(asce)wr.1943-5452.0000159.

Yazdani, Alireza, and Paul Jeffrey. “Water Distribution System Vulnerability Analysis Using Weighted and Directed Network Models.” Water Resources Research 48, no. 6 (June 2012). doi:10.1029/2012wr011897.

Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo, James I. Craig, and Barry J. Goodno. “Seismic Response of Critical Interdependent Networks.” Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics 36, no. 2 (2007): 285–306. doi:10.1002/eqe.626.

Liu, Yangyang, Chengli Zhao, Xiaojie Wang, Qiangjuan Huang, Xue Zhang, and Dongyun Yi. “The Degree-Related Clustering Coefficient and Its Application to Link Prediction.” Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and Its Applications 454 (July 2016): 24–33. doi:10.1016/j.physa.2016.02.014.

Reggiani, Aura, Peter Nijkamp, and Diego Lanzi. “Transport Resilience and Vulnerability: The Role of Connectivity.” Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 81 (November 2015): 4–15. doi:10.1016/j.tra.2014.12.012.

Chai, C.-L., X. Liu, W.J. Zhang, and Z. Baber. “Application of Social Network Theory to Prioritizing Oil & Gas Industries Protection in a Networked Critical Infrastructure System.” Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 24, no. 5 (September 2011): 688–694. doi:10.1016/j.jlp.2011.05.011.

Eisenberg, Daniel A., Jeryang Park, and Thomas P. Seager. “Sociotechnical Network Analysis for Power Grid Resilience in South Korea.” Complexity 2017 (2017): 1–14. doi:10.1155/2017/3597010.

Nazarnia, H.; Mostafavi, A.; Pradhananga,N.; Ganapati, E. and R. Khanal, R. “Assessment of infrastructure resilience in developing Countries: a case study of water infrastructure in the 2015 Nepalese earthquake” Proceedings of the International Conference on Smart Infrastructure and Construction.

Ouyang, Min. “Review on Modeling and Simulation of Interdependent Critical Infrastructure Systems.” Reliability Engineering & System Safety 121 (January 2014): 43–60. doi:10.1016/j.ress.2013.06.040.

Hernandez-Fajardo, Isaac, and Leonardo Dueñas-Osorio. “Probabilistic Study of Cascading Failures in Complex Interdependent Lifeline Systems.” Reliability Engineering & System Safety 111 (March 2013): 260–272. doi:10.1016/j.ress.2012.10.012.

Sterbenz, James P. G., Egemen K. Çetinkaya, Mahmood A. Hameed, Abdul Jabbar, Shi Qian, and Justin P. Rohrer. “Evaluation of Network Resilience, Survivability, and Disruption Tolerance: Analysis, Topology Generation, Simulation, and Experimentation.” Telecommunication Systems (December 7, 2011). doi:10.1007/s11235-011-9573-6.

Hines, Paul, Eduardo Cotilla-Sanchez, and Seth Blumsack. “Do Topological Models Provide Good Information About Electricity Infrastructure Vulnerability?” Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science 20, no. 3 (September 2010): 033122. doi:10.1063/1.3489887.

Chang, Stephanie E., Timothy McDaniels, Jana Fox, Rajan Dhariwal, and Holly Longstaff. “Toward Disaster-Resilient Cities: Characterizing Resilience of Infrastructure Systems with Expert Judgments.” Risk Analysis 34, no. 3 (October 23, 2013): 416–434. doi:10.1111/risa.12133.

Chang, Stephanie E., Timothy McDaniels, Jana Fox, Rajan Dhariwal, and Holly Longstaff. “Toward Disaster-Resilient Cities: Characterizing Resilience of Infrastructure Systems with Expert Judgments.” Risk Analysis 34, no. 3 (October 23, 2013): 416–434. doi:10.1111/risa.12133.

Winkler, James, Leonardo Dueñas-Osorio, Robert Stein, and Devika Subramanian. “Interface Network Models for Complex Urban Infrastructure Systems.” Journal of Infrastructure Systems 17, no. 4 (December 2011): 138–150. doi:10.1061/(asce)is.1943-555x.0000068.

Meghanathan, Natarajan, Aniekan Essien, and Raven Lawrence. “A Two-Hop Neighbor Preference-Based Random Network Graph Model with High Clustering Coefficient for Modeling Real-World Complex Networks.” Egyptian Informatics Journal (September 2016). doi:10.1016/j.eij.2016.06.008.

Wu, Zhihao, Youfang Lin, Jing Wang, and Steve Gregory. “Link Prediction with Node Clustering Coefficient.” Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and Its Applications 452 (June 2016): 1–8. doi:10.1016/j.physa.2016.01.038.

Adger, W. Neil. "Vulnerability." Global environmental change16, no. 3 (2006): 268-281.

Gallopín, Gilberto C. “Linkages Between Vulnerability, Resilience, and Adaptive Capacity.” Global Environmental Change 16, no. 3 (August 2006): 293–303. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.02.004.

Luers, Amy L. “The Surface of Vulnerability: An Analytical Framework for Examining Environmental Change.” Global Environmental Change 15, no. 3 (October 2005): 214–223. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2005.04.003.

Rinaldi, S.M., Peerenboom, J.P. and Kelly, T.K. “Identifying, Understanding, and Analyzing Critical Infrastructure Interdependencies.” IEEE Control Systems 21, no. 6 (December 2001): 11–25. doi:10.1109/37.96913[

Bruneau, Michel, and Andrei Reinhorn. "Overview of the resilience concept." In Proceedings of the 8th US national conference on earthquake engineering, vol. 2040, pp. 18-22. 2006.

Crucitti, Paolo, Vito Latora, and Massimo Marchiori. “A Topological Analysis of the Italian Electric Power Grid.” Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and Its Applications 338, no. 1–2 (July 2004): 92–97. doi:10.1016/j.physa.2004.02.029.

Mostafavi, Ali, Nazife Emel Ganapati, Hadi Nazarnia, Nipesh Pradhananga, and Rewat Khanal. “Adaptive Capacity Under Chronic Stressors: Assessment of Water Infrastructure Resilience in 2015 Nepalese Earthquake Using a System Approach.” Natural Hazards Review 19, no. 1 (February 2018): 05017006. doi:10.1061/(asce)nh.1527-6996.0000263.

Rasoulkhani, Kambiz, Maria Presa Reyes, and Ali Mostafavi. “Emergence of Resilience from Infrastructure Dynamics: A Simulation Framework for Theory Building.” Computing in Civil Engineering 2017 (June 13, 2017). doi:10.1061/9780784480847.032.

Dixit, A. M. "Earthquake disaster risk management efforts in Nepal." In International Symposium Geohazards: Science, Engineering and Management. 2014.

Baqersad, Mohamadtaqi, Mojtaba Mohammadafzali, Bouzid Choubane, Charles Holzschuher, Amirmasoud Hamedi, and Hesham Ali. “Precision Assessment of the Florida Texture Meter in Hot Mix Asphalt.” Journal of Transportation Engineering, Part B: Pavements 144, no. 2 (June 2018): 04018003. doi:10.1061/jpeodx.0000029.

Post Disaster Need Assessment (PDNA) (2015). Government of Nepal National Planning Commission. Available online:, (Accessed in August 2015).

Kaushik, Hemant, John Bevington, Kishor Jaiswal, Bret Lizundia, and Surya Shrestha. Buildings (EERI Earthquake Reconnaissance Team Report: M7. 8 Gorkha, Nepal Earthquake on April 25, 2015 and its Aftershocks). Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, 2016.

Uprety, Sital, Juliet Iwelunmor, Nora Sadik, Bipin Dangol, and Thanh H. Nguyen. “A Qualitative Case Study of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Resources after the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal, Earthquake.” Earthquake Spectra 33, no. S1 (December 2017): S133–S146. doi:10.1193/112916eqs212m.

Ennett, Susan T., and Karl E. Bauman. “Peer Group Structure and Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: A Social Network Analysis.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 34, no. 3 (September 1993): 226. doi:10.2307/2137204.

Boccaletti, Stefano, Vito Latora, Yamir Moreno, Martin Chavez, and D-U. Hwang. "Complex networks: Structure and dynamics." Physics reports 424, no. 4-5 (2006): 175-308. doi:10.1016/j.physrep.2005.10.009.

Newman, M. E. J. “The Structure and Function of Complex Networks.” SIAM Review 45, no. 2 (January 2003): 167–256. doi:10.1137/s003614450342480.

Clauset, Aaron, Cristopher Moore, and M. E. J. Newman. “Hierarchical Structure and the Prediction of Missing Links in Networks.” Nature 453, no. 7191 (May 2008): 98–101. doi:10.1038/nature06830.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-03091165


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Hadi Nazarnia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.