Numerical and Experimental Research on Convergence Angle of Wet Sprayer Nozzle

Chang Su, Yun-hai Cheng


Shotcrete is a popular support method in construction of both ground projects and underground projects, such as tunnels, subways, slopes and roadway, etc. However, at present researches on the influence of nozzle structure parameters on the performance of concrete injection are insufficient. This research focuses on the influence of various parameters of nozzle structure on the evenness and dust generating, and conducts a systematic study on the flow characteristics of the concrete in the nozzle of wet spraying machinery and the quality control law, through a comprehensive research method combining theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and field tests. On the basis of dynamic analysis of the internal flow field of the nozzle, the mathematical model and numerical model of the internal flow field of the nozzle are establishes. Then the simulation calculation of the flow field of the wet spray nozzle is conducted with the FLUENT® software. The fluid’s contour about velocity and phase volume fraction in the nozzle were obtained. On this basis this paper analyzed each phase’s volume fraction of the mixed fluid in the outlet section. The convergent section of the nozzle is tested in the spray concrete impact force distribution system. The results are in good correspondence with the results of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, which verifies the validity and reliability of the conclusion of numerical simulation. This paper provides the basis for the optimization of nozzle structure, and the improvement of the sprayed concrete construction quality.


Shotcrete; Wet Spraying Machinery; Nozzle; Convergence Angle; Numerical Simulation.


American Concrete Institute (ACI) CT-13. “ACI concrete terminologye an ACI standard.” ACI (2013).

American Concrete Institute (ACI) 506.5R-09. “Guide for specifying underground shotcrete.” ACI (2009).

Australian Shotcrete Society (ASS). “Shotcreting in Australia.” ASS (2010).

L. Martin, et al. “An analysis of flexural strength and crack width for fiber-reinforced shotcrete used in weak rock mines.” Transactions of Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc 328 (2011): TP09-062.

J. Höfler, J. Schlumpf. “Shotcrete in tunnel construction.” Putzmeister AG, editor (2006).

B. Ulvestad, B. Bakke, W. Eduard, J. Kongerud, M B. Lund. “Cumulative exposureto dust causes accelerated decline in lung function in tunnel workers.” Occupational & Environmental Medicine 58(10) (2001): 663-669. doi: 10.1136/oem.58.10.663.

P. Georg, L H. Andrea, K. Richard, F. Günter. “31.O.06 Dust and shotcrete tun-neling: did the exposure situation improve over the years?.” Journal of Aerosol Science 5(1) (1994): 557-558. doi: 10.1016 / 0021-8502 (94) 90508-8.

G J. Praml, R. Kessel. “Continuous full shift personal dust exposure monitoring.” Journal of Aerosol Science 18 (6) (1987): 911-914. doi: 10.1016/ 0021- 8502 (87) 90154-6.

G. Praml, A. Hartmann, P. Droz, R. Kessel, G. Fruhmann. “Shotcrete in tunnel construction-The long-term development of exposure to dust.” Zentralblatt fürArbeitsmed. Arbeitsschutz Ergon 45(3) (1995): 86-93.

G. Praml, A. Hartmann, P O. Droz, R. Kessel, R. Knutti, B. Danuser, G. Fruhmann. “Dust exposure in shotcrete tunnelling.” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 4(1998): 455-464.

Lianjun Chen, Guoming Liu, Weimin Cheng. “Pipe flow of pumping wet shotcrete based on lubrication layer.” Springer Plus 5(1) (2016): 945-958. doi: 10.1186/s40064-016-2633-3.

N. Ginous, M. Jolin. “Investigation of spray pattern in shotcrete applications.” Construction and Building Materials 93(2015): 966-972. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.05.061.

Guoming Liu, Lianjun Chen. “Development of a new type of green switch air entraining agent for wet-mix shotcrete and its engineering application.” Annual Review of Materials Science 4(2016): 1-9. doi: 10.1155/2016/69810 91.

Guoming Liu, Weimin Cheng, Lianjun Chen. “Investigating and optimizing the mix proportion of pumping wet-mix shotcrete with polypropylene fiber.” Construction and Building Materials 150(2017): 14-23. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuild- mat.2017.05.169.

Jiabin Wang, Ditao Niu, Yongli Zhang. “Mechanical properties, permeability and durability of accelerated shotcrete.” Construction and Building Materials 95(2015): 312-328. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.07.148.

Lianjun Chen, Pengcheng Lia, Guoming Liua. “Development of cement dust suppression technology during shotcrete in mine of China A review.” Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 55(2018): 232-242. doi: 10.1016/j.jlp.2018.07.001.

Zeng Xiantao, Ren Zhenhua, Wang Xingguo. “Experimental investigations on reducing the dust density and the rebound rate of shotcrete by using magnetized water.” Journal of China Coal Society 39(4) (2014): 705-712. doi: 10. 13225/ j. cnki. jccs. 2013. 0473.

Lü Zhongbin, Wang Yang, Liu Jieqiong. “Value of nozzle falloff angle of jet pump.” Journal of Jiangsu University: Natural Science Edition 36(3) (2015): 281-287. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-7775.20 15.03.007.

American Concrete Institute (ACI) 506R-05. “Guide to Shotcrete.” ACI (2005).

American Concrete Institute (ACI) CP-60(09). “Craftsman Workbook Shotcrete.” ACI (2009).

M. Bohnet, U. Wagenknecht. “Investigations on Flow Conditions in Gas/Solid Injector.” German Chemical Engineering 1(5) (1978): 298-304.

M. Bohnet, J. Teifke. “New results on the efficiency of energy transformation in gas-solid injectors.” Reliable Flow of Particulate Solids 3(5) (1985): 1-18.

N. Ginouse, M. Jolin. “Experimental and numerical investigation of particle kinematics in shotcrete.” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 26(11) (2014): 06014023. doi: 10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0001092.

Ginouse N, Jolin M, Bissonnette B. “Effect of equipment on spray velocity distribution in shotcrete applications.” Construction and Building Materials 70(2014): 362-369. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.07.116.

Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of People's Republic of China (MOHURD) JGJ/T372-2016. “Technical specification for app1ication of sprayed concrete.” China Architecture & Building (2016).

Chang Su, Yongcun Guo. “Test System of Shotcrete Impact Force Distribution Based on the Conductive Rubber.” Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 21(2016): 2826-2836.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-03091132


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Chang Su

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.