Modeling of Rainfall-Runoff Correlations Using Artificial Neural Network-A Case Study of Dharoi Watershed of a Sabarmati River Basin, India

Ajaykumar Bhagubhai Patel, Geeta S. Joshi


The use of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is becoming common due to its ability to analyse complex nonlinear events. An ANN has a flexible, convenient and easy mathematical structure to identify the nonlinear relationships between input and output data sets. This capability could efficiently be employed for the different hydrological models such as rainfall-runoff models, which are inherently nonlinear in nature. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) can be used in cases where the available data is limited. The present work involves the development of an ANN model using Feed-Forward Back Propagation algorithm for establishing monthly and annual rainfall runoff correlations. The hydrologic variables used were monthly and annual rainfall and runoff for monthly and annual time period of monsoon season. The ANN model developed in this study is applied to Dharoi reservoir watersheds of Sabarmati river basin of India. The hydrologic data were available for twenty-nine years at Dharoi station at Dharoi dam project. The model results yielding into the least error is recommended for simulating the rainfall-runoff characteristics of the watersheds. The obtained results can help the water resource managers to operate the reservoir properly in the case of extreme events such as flooding and drought.


Artificial Neural Networks (ANN); Feed-Forward Back Propagation Algorithm; Rainfall-Runoff Modeling.


H. Maier, A. Jain, G. Dandy, K. P. Sudheer, “Methods used for the development of neural networks for the prediction of water resource variables in river systems: Current status and future directions.” Environ. Model. Softw. 2010, 25, 891–909.

Faridah Othman, Mahdi Naseri, “Reservoir inflow forecasting using artificial neural network.” International Journal of the Physical Sciences, 2011, Vol. 6(3), pp. 434-440, 4 February, 2011.

P. V. Singh, Kumar Akhilesh; J. S. Rawat, Kumar Devendra, “Artificial neural networks based daily rainfall-runoff model for an agricultural hilly watershed.” I.J.E.M.S. 2013, Vol.4 (2) 2013: 108-112.

A. Bahremand, F. De Smedt, “Predictive analysis and simulation uncertainty of a distributed hydrological model.” Water resources management. 2010, vol.24(12), 2869-2880.

Vahid Nourani, Mehdi Komasi, Mohammad Taghi Alami, “Hybrid Wavelet–Genetic Programming Approach to Optimize ANN Modeling of Rainfall–Runoff Process.” Journal of hydrologic engineering ASCE, 2012 JUNE, 727.

M. P. Rajkumar, U. C. Kothyari, U. C. Chaube, “Artificial neural networks for daily rainfall-runoff modelling.” Hydrologkal Sciences-Jo umai-des Sciences Hydrologiques, 2002, 47(6), December 2002.

Mehrdad Fereydooni, Mehrdad Rahnemaei, Hossein Babazadeh, Hossein Sedghi, Mohammad Reza Elhami, “Comparison of artificial neural networks and stochastic models in river discharge forecasting, (Case study: Ghara- Aghaj River, Fars Province, Iran).” African Journal of Agricultural Research 2012, Vol. 7(40), pp. 5446-5458, 23 October, 2012.

Dae Jeong, Young-Oh Kim, “Rainfall-runoff models using artificial neural networks for ensemble streamflow prediction.” Hydrological Processes, 2005, 19, 3819–3835.

Ankit Chakravarti, Nitin Joshi, Himanshu Panjiar, “Rainfall Runoff Analysis Using Artificial Neural Network.” Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2015, Vol 8(14), July 2015.

Archana Sarkar, Rakesh Kumar, “Artificial Neural Networks for Event Based Rainfall-Runoff Modeling.” Journal of Water Resource and Protection. 2012, vol.4, 891-897.

C. Chandre Gowda, S. G. Mayya, “Determining the Sensitivity of Rainfall- Runoff Model using Artificial Neural Network Approach.” International Journal of Advanced Structures and Geotechnical Engineering ISSN 2319-5347, 2015, Vol. 04, No. 01, January 2015.

W. Christian Dawson, Robert Wilby, “An artificial neural network approach to rainfall runoff modelling.” Hydrological Sciences—Journal—des Sciences Hydrologiques, 1998, 43(1) February 1998.

C. Chandre Gowda, S. G. Mayya, “Rainfall Runoff Modelling Using Generalized Neural Network and Radial Basis Network.” International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications in Engineering ISSN:2147-6799 IJISAE, 2014, 2(4), 76–79.

Ivana Sušanj, Nevenka ODaniT, Ivan MaroviT, “Methodology for Developing Hydrological Models Based on an Artificial Neural Network to Establish an Early Warning System in Small Catchments.” Hindawi Publishing Corporation Advances in Meteorology, 2016, Volume 14.

Jun Zhang, Chun-tian Cheng, Sheng-li Liao, Xin-yu Wu, Jian-jian Shen, “Daily reservoir inflow forecasting combining QPF into ANNs model.” Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 2009, 6, 121–150, 2009.

Manish Kumar Goyal; Chandra Shekhar Prasad Ojha. “Analysis of Mean Monthly Rainfall Runoff Data of Indian Catchments Using Dimensionless Variables by Neural Network.” Journal of Environmental Protection, 2010, 1, 155-171.

Pallavi Mittal, Swaptik Chowdhury, Sangeeta Roy, Nikhil Bhatia, Roshan Srivastav, “Dual Artificial Neural Network for Rainfall-Runoff Forecasting.” Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 2012, 4, 1024-1028.

Faramarz Keshvari, Seyed Amir Shamsnia, “Evaluation of Artificial intelligence models (Artificial Neural Networks) to forecasting the discharge of monthly river flow (Case study: Bahman section, Qareaghaj River).” Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences ISSN: 2231– 6345 (Online), 2014 Vol.4 (S3), pp.8-13.

Y. Shamseldin Asaad, “Artificial neural network model for river flow forecasting in a developing country.” Journal of Hydroinformatics, 2010, 12.1.

S. Raid, J. Mania, “Rainfall-Runoff Model Using an Artificial Neural Network Approach.” Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 2004, 40, 839-846.

Shraddha Srivastava, K. C. Tripathi, “Artificial Neural Network and Non-Linear Regression: A Comparative Study.” International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 2012, Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2012. ISSN 2250-3153.

Kuok King Kuok, Nabil Bessaih, “Artificial neural networks (ANNS) for daily rainfall runoff modelling.” Journal - The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia 2007 Vol. 68, No.3, September 2007.

Takahiro Sayama, Yasuto Tachikawa, Kaoru Takara, Yutaka Ichikawa, “Distributed rainfall–runoff analysis in a flow regulated basin having multiple multi-purpose dams.” IAHS Publ. 2006, 303.

A. M. Kalteh, “Rainfall-runoff modelling using artificial neural networks (ANNs): modelling and understanding.” Caspian J. Env. Sci. 2008, Vol. 6 No.1 pp. 53-58.

Shahram Karimi-Googhari, Huang Yuk Feng, Abdul Halim B Ghazali, Lee Teang Shui, “Neural Networks for Forecasting Daily Reservoir Inflows.” Pertanika J. Sci. and Technol, 2010, 18 (1): 33 – 41 (2010). ISSN: 0128-7680.

Zulkarnain Hassana, Supiah Shamsudin, Sobri Harun, “Minimum Input Variances for Modelling Rainfall-runoff Using ANN.” Jurnal Teknologi (Sciences and Engineering), 2014 Vol. 69(3), 2014, pages 113-118.

J. M. Bravo, A. R. Paz, W. Collischonn, C. B. Uvo, O. C. Pedrollo, S. C. Chou, “Incorporating Forecasts of Rainfall in Two Hydrologic Models Used for Medium-Range Streamflow Forecasting.” J. Hydrol. Eng. 2009, 14:435-445.

R. Naik Arti, Prof. S. K. Pathan, “Weather Classification and Forecasting using Back Propagation Feed -forward Neural Network.” International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 2012, Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2012, ISSN 2250-3153.

Rosmina Bustami, Nabil Bessaih, Charles Bong, Suhaila Suhaili, “Artificial Neural Network for Precipitation and Water Level Predictions of Bedup River.” IAENG International Journal of Computer Science, 2010, 34:2, IJCS_34_2_10.

E. O. Oyebode, K. O. Adekalu, S. G. Fashoto, “Development of Rainfall-Runoff forecast model.” International Journal of Engineering and Mathematical Intelligence, 2010, Vol. 1 Nos. 1 & 3, 2010.

Anil Kumar Kar, Anil Kumar Lohani, Narendra Kumar Goel, Gopal Prasad Roy, “Development of Flood Forecasting System Using Statistical and ANN Techniques in the Downstream Catchment of Mahanadi Basin, India.” J. Water Resource and Protection, 2010, 2, 880-887.

Santosh Patil, Shriniwas Valunjkar, “Farecasting of daily runoff using artificial neural networks.” International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) 2014, Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), pp. 13-20.

Mehmet C. Demirel, Anabela Venancio, Ercan Kahya, “Flow forecast by SWAT model and ANN in Pracana basin, Portugal.” Advances in Engineering Software, 2009, 40, 467–473.

Farzbod Amirhossien, Faridhossieni Alireza, Javan Kazem, Sharifi Mohammadbagher, “A Comparison of ANN and HSPF Models for Runoff Simulation in Balkhichai River Watershed, Iran.” American Journal of Climate Change, 2015, 4, 203-216.

P. Sundara Kumar, T. V. Praveen, Anjanaya Prasad, “Artificial Neural Network Model for Rainfall-Runoff -A Case Study.” International Journal of Hybrid Information Technology. 2016, Vol.9, No.3, pp. 263-272.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-2017-00000074


Copyright (c) 2017 Ajaykumar Bhagubhai Patel, Dr. Geeta S. Joshi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.