Evaluation of Steel Industrial Slag as Partial Replacement of Cement in Concrete

Affan Jalil, Anwar Khitab, Hamza Ishtiaq, Syed Hassan Bukhari, Muhammad Tausif Arshad, Waqas Anwar


Cement is the most important ingredient in concrete, which acts as a binding material. It is evaluated that cement is the second largest industrial source of CO2 on earth. This demands a partial or full replacement of cement by an environment-friendly material. In this research industrial waste slag from a local Steel Mill, namely Mangla Metals was selected as possible replacement of cement. Some preliminary standard tests conducted on the slag showed its strong chances to be used as pozzolana. Slag used for this study was reduced to the particle size passing through ASTM standard sieve #100. Concrete specimens containing 10% and 20% replacement of cement by slag were prepared. The mechanical properties like compressive, split cylinder tensile and flexure strength were determined as per standard ASTM methods. Tests were conducted at 3, 7 and 28 days of concrete age. Results show a decrease of 14% in compressive strength, 7.5% in tensile strength and 10.5% in flexure strength for 10% replacement vis-à-vis control specimens at 28 days. For 20% replacement, the decrease in compressive, tensile and flexure strength are 25.5%, 29%, 31% respectively. Additionally, ASTM standard strength activity index test with finer slag particles passing through ASTM sieve #200 provided compressive strength more than that of control specimen. Based on the results, it is concluded that the industrial slag has the potential to partially replace the cement if slag is ground to the particles, passing through ASTM sieve #200. This could lead to a huge reduction of cement quantity in concrete and the environmental burden due to deposition of waste slag in landfills.


Concrete; Cement; Industrial Steel Slag; Mechanical Strength; Strength Activity Index.


A. Khitab, Materials of Construction, Allied Books, 2012.

A. Khitab, W. Anwar, I. Mehmood, U.A. Khan, S. Minhaj, S. Kazmi, M.J. Munir, Sustainable Construction With Advanced Biomaterials: An Overview, Sci.Int.(Lahore). 28 (2016) 2351–2356.

A. Khitab, W. Anwar, I. Mansouri, M.K. Tariq, I. Mehmood, Future of civil engineering materials: A review from recent developments, Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 42 (2015) 20–27.

B. Lothenbach, K. Scrivener, R.D. Hooton, Supplementary cementitious materials, Cem. Concr. Res. 41 (2011) 1244–1256. doi:10.1016/j.cemconres.2010.12.001.

S. Kumar, R. Kumar, A. Bandopadhyay, T.C. Alex, B. Ravi Kumar, S.K. Das, S.P. Mehrotra, Mechanical activation of granulated blast furnace slag and its effect on the properties and structure of portland slag cement, Cem. Concr. Compos. 30 (2008) 679–685. doi:10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2008.05.005.

J. Liu, Q. Yu, W. Duan, Q. Qin, Experimental investigation of glass content of blast furnace slag by dry granulation, Environ. Prog. Sustain. Energy. 34 (2015) 485–491. doi:10.1002/ep.12024.

R. Schmidt, R. Eisenhower, Quantitative phase analysis of Blast Furnace Slag Cements, 2008.

Z. Bayer Ozturk, E. Eren Gultekin, Preparation of ceramic wall tiling derived from blast furnace slag, Ceram. Int. 41 (2015) 12020–12026. doi:10.1016/j.ceramint.2015.06.014.

ASTM C109/C109M-16a, Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (Using 2-In. or [50-Mm] Cube Specimens), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016, doi:10.1520/C0109_C0109M-16A.

ASTM C 496/C 496M – 04, Standard Test Method for Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens, Annual Book of ASTM Standards Volume 04.02, 2011, 1–5. doi: 10.1520/C0496_C0496M-11

ASTM C78/C78M. ASTM C78/C78M - 02 - Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam with Third-Point Loading). ASTM International, 2002. doi:10.1520/C0078_C0078M-16

ASTM C31, Standard Practice for Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Laboratory, ASTM Int. (2013) 1–8. doi:10.1520/C0192.

ASTM C39, ASTM C39: Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens, ASTM Int. (2015) 1–7. doi:10.1520/C0039.

ASTM C78/C78M, ASTM C78/C78M - 02 - Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam with Third-Point Loading), ASTM Int. (2002) 1–3. doi:10.1520/C0078_C0078M-16.

S.W. Dean, D.P. Bentz, A. Durán-Herrera, D. Galvez-Moreno, Comparison of ASTM C311 Strength Activity Index Testing versus Testing Based on Constant Volumetric Proportions, J. ASTM Int. 9 (2012) 104138. doi:10.1520/JAI104138.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-2019-03091236


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Anwar Khitab

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.