Enhanced Degradation of Dyes present in Textile Effluent by Ultrasound Assisted Electrochemical Reactor

Asad Ali, Naeem Ejaz, Sadia Nasreen, Ali Nasir, Liaqat Ali Qureshi, Basem Mohammed Al-Sakkaf


Textile industry being the backbone of any country plays a very essential part in the development of the country. The treatment of chemical dyes present in textile wastewater and its reuse for irrigational purposes has become a major concern for the researchers. The present study emphasis on proper degradation of commonly used reactive blue (RB) 19 dye present in textile effluents using ultrasound assisted electrochemical reactor technique and presenting the analysis of microparticles present in dyes and its quantitative composition before and after treatment by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images at high magnification. The investigation was carried out using various parameters such as Concentration, pH and reaction rate. The testing setup also includes UV absorbance spectrophotometer, ultrasonic bath, DC power supply, weighing balance, suction apparatus, and thermometer. Our studies show that the Optimum dye degradation (i.e. 82.3 %) was achieved at time 120 minutes with pH of 3.22 for 50 ppm of solution and the maximum degradation (i.e. 85%) was achieved at 40 0C using acid (HCl) and Base (NaOH) in equal amounts after 120 minutes for solution of 30ppm. The work efficiency includes saving time, money and degrading the dyes from wastewater before toxic sludge formation.


Dye Degradation; Ultrasonic Assistance; Electrochemical Process; Reactive Blue (RB) 19 Dye; Textile Effluent.


O’Neill, C., et al., Colour in textile effluents–sources, measurement, discharge consents and simulation: a review. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology: International Research in Process, Environmental & Clean Technology, (November, 1999). 74(11): p. 1009-1018 doi:10.1002/(sici)1097-4660(199911)74:11<1009::aid-jctb153>3.0.co;2-n.

Maas, Robert, and Sanjeev Chaudhari. “Adsorption and Biological Decolourization of Azo Dye Reactive Red 2 in Semicontinuous Anaerobic Reactors.” Process Biochemistry 40, no. 2 (February 2005): 699–705. doi:10.1016/j.procbio.2004.01.038.

Abidi, Nejib, Emna Errais, Joëlle Duplay, Amor Berez, Amel Jrad, Gerhard Schäfer, Malika Ghazi, Khadija Semhi, and Malika Trabelsi-Ayadi. “Treatment of Dye-Containing Effluent by Natural Clay.” Journal of Cleaner Production 86 (January 2015): 432–440. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.08.043.

Ozturk, Emrah, Mustafa Karaboyacı, Ulku Yetis, Nevzat O. Yigit, and Mehmet Kitis. “Evaluation of Integrated Pollution Prevention Control in a Textile Fiber Production and Dyeing Mill.” Journal of Cleaner Production 88 (February 2015): 116–124. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.04.064.

Shahid-ul-Islam, Mohammad Shahid, and Faqeer Mohammad. “Perspectives for Natural Product Based Agents Derived from Industrial Plants in Textile Applications – a Review.” Journal of Cleaner Production 57 (October 2013): 2–18. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.06.004.

Correia, Venceslau M., Tom Stephenson, and Simon J. Judd.“Characterisation of Textile Wastewaters - a Review.” Environmental Technology 15, no. 10 (October 1994): 917–929. doi:10.1080/09593339409385500.

Pandey, Anjali, Poonam Singh, and Leela Iyengar. “Bacterial Decolorization and Degradation of Azo Dyes.” International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 59, no. 2 (March 2007): 73–84. doi:10.1016/j.ibiod.2006.08.006.

Chen, Kuo-Cheng, Jane-Yii Wu, Dar-Jen Liou, and Sz-Chwun John Hwang. “Decolorization of the Textile Dyes by Newly Isolated Bacterial Strains.” Journal of Biotechnology 101, no. 1 (February 2003): 57–68. doi:10.1016/s0168-1656(02)00303-6.

Hasanbeigi, Ali, and Lynn Price. “A Technical Review of Emerging Technologies for Energy and Water Efficiency and Pollution Reduction in the Textile Industry.” Journal of Cleaner Production 95 (May 2015): 30–44. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.02.079.

Parisi, Maria Laura, Enrico Fatarella, Daniele Spinelli, Rebecca Pogni, and Riccardo Basosi. “Environmental Impact Assessment of an Eco-Efficient Production for Coloured Textiles.” Journal of Cleaner Production 108 (December 2015): 514–524. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.06.032.

Khatri, Awais, Mazhar Hussain Peerzada, Muhammad Mohsin, and Max White. “A Review on Developments in Dyeing Cotton Fabrics with Reactive Dyes for Reducing Effluent Pollution.” Journal of Cleaner Production 87 (January 2015): 50–57. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.09.017.

Galindo, Catherine, Patrice Jacques, and André Kalt. “Photooxidation of the Phenylazonaphthol AO20 on TIO2: Kinetic and Mechanistic Investigations.” Chemosphere 45, no. 6–7 (November 2001): 997–1005. doi:10.1016/s0045-6535(01)00118-7.

Weisburger, John H. “Comments on the History and Importance of Aromatic and Heterocyclic Amines in Public Health.” Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 506–507 (September 2002): 9–20. doi:10.1016/s0027-5107(02)00147-1.

Oller, I., S. Malato, and J.A. Sánchez-Pérez. “Combination of Advanced Oxidation Processes and Biological Treatments for Wastewater decontamination—A Review.” Science of the Total Environment 409, no. 20 (September 2011): 4141–4166. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.08.061.

Lima, Eder C., Betina Royer, Julio C.P. Vaghetti, Nathalia M. Simon, Bruna M. da Cunha, Flavio A. Pavan, Edilson V. Benvenutti, Renato Cataluña-Veses, and Claudio Airoldi. “Application of Brazilian Pine-Fruit Shell as a Biosorbent to Removal of Reactive Red 194 Textile Dye from Aqueous Solution.” Journal of Hazardous Materials 155, no. 3 (July 2008): 536–550. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.11.101.

Royer, Betina, Natali F. Cardoso, Eder C. Lima, Julio C.P. Vaghetti, Nathalia M. Simon, Tatiana Calvete, and Renato Cataluña Veses. “Applications of Brazilian Pine-Fruit Shell in Natural and Carbonized Forms as Adsorbents to Removal of Methylene Blue from Aqueous solutions—Kinetic and Equilibrium Study.” Journal of Hazardous Materials 164, no. 2–3 (May 30, 2009): 1213–1222. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.09.028.

Brookstein, David S. “Factors Associated with Textile Pattern Dermatitis Caused by Contact Allergy to Dyes, Finishes, Foams, and Preservatives.” Dermatologic Clinics 27, no. 3 (July 2009): 309–322. doi:10.1016/j.det.2009.05.001.

Alves de Lima, Rodrigo Otávio, Ana Paula Bazo, Daisy Maria Fávero Salvadori, Célia Maria Rech, Danielle de Palma Oliveira, and Gisela de Aragão Umbuzeiro. “Mutagenic and Carcinogenic Potential of a Textile Azo Dye Processing Plant Effluent That Impacts a Drinking Water Source.” Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 626, no. 1–2 (January 2007): 53–60. doi:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2006.08.002.

Carneiro, Patricia A., Gisela A. Umbuzeiro, Danielle P. Oliveira, and Maria Valnice B. Zanoni. “Assessment of Water Contamination Caused by a Mutagenic Textile Effluent/dyehouse Effluent Bearing Disperse Dyes.” Journal of Hazardous Materials 174, no. 1–3 (February 2010): 694–699. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.09.106.

Eghbali-Arani, Mohammad, Ali Sobhani-Nasab, Mehdi Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Farhad Ahmadi, and Saeid Pourmasoud. “Ultrasound-Assisted Synthesis of YbVO4 Nanostructure and YbVO4/CuWO4 Nanocomposites for Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dyes under Visible Light.” Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 43 (May 2018): 120–135. doi:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2017.11.040.

Shanker, Uma, Manviri Rani, and Vidhisha Jassal. “Degradation of Hazardous Organic Dyes in Water by Nanomaterials.” Environmental Chemistry Letters 15, no. 4 (June 21, 2017): 623–642. doi:10.1007/s10311-017-0650-2.

Mouni, Lotfi, Lazhar Belkhiri, Jean-Claude Bollinger, Abdelkrim Bouzaza, Aymen Assadi, Amar Tirri, Farid Dahmoune, Khodir Madani, and Houcine Remini. “Removal of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption on Kaolin: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies.” Applied Clay Science 153 (March 2018): 38–45. doi:10.1016/j.clay.2017.11.034.

Katheresan, Vanitha, Jibrail Kansedo, and Sie Yon Lau. “Efficiency of Various Recent Wastewater Dye Removal Methods: A Review.” Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 6, no. 4 (August 2018): 4676–4697. doi:10.1016/j.jece.2018.06.060.

Shah, Jasmin, Muhammad Rasul Jan, and Fatima Khitab. “Sonophotocatalytic Degradation of Textile Dyes over Cu Impregnated ZnO Catalyst in Aqueous Solution.” Process Safety and Environmental Protection 116 (May 2018): 149–158. doi:10.1016/j.psep.2018.01.008.

Ince, Nilsun H. “Ultrasound-Assisted Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water Decontamination.” Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 40 (January 2018): 97–103. doi:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2017.04.009.

Rajoriya, Sunil, Swapnil Bargole, Suja George, and Virendra Kumar Saharan. “Treatment of Textile Dyeing Industry Effluent Using Hydrodynamic Cavitation in Combination with Advanced Oxidation Reagents.” Journal of Hazardous Materials 344 (February 2018): 1109–1115. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2017.12.005.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-2019-03091399


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Asad Ali, Naeem Ejaz, Sadia Nasreen, Ali Nasir, Liaqat Ali Qureshi, Basem Mohammed Al-Sakkaf

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.