Optimalization of the Ferronickel Production Process through Improving Desulfurization Effectiveness

Izet Ibrahimi, Nurten Deva, Sabri Mehmeti


Desulphurization of Ferronickel in the converters with oxygen is the most complex part of the technological process in the Drenas foundry. Sulphur in the ferronickel melting is mostly in the form of FeS, with a melting temperature of 1195oC, and it has tendency to dissolve indefinitely in liquid iron. Our objective is to determine the sulphur removal coefficient, as a key indicator of the desulphurization efficiency in the converter, by measuring the activity and concentration of sulphur and other elements in liquid Fe and melting. Determination of this coefficient is done according to the analytical method, while comparing the current process parameters with those of the new desulfurization methods, other indicators of the refining process are determined. The refining process and the effective conduct of the study depend on the XRD analysis database of metal and slag, and as well of the technological refining process analysis data. Research has shown that desulfurization efficiency is a function of the sulphur removal coefficient, respectively; metal composition, slag, oxygen activity, CaO/SiO2 ratio, sulphide capacity, fluidity, surface pressure, etc.). In addition to this coefficient, other indicators of refining process optimization are defined.


Ferronickel; Slag; Sulphur Portion Coefficient; Desulphurization; Sulphide Capacity; Refined Ferronickel.


Schemmel, Th., Schade, L., Kouzoupis, P., Beqiri, F., “Magnesia-carbon refractory lining for ferronickel converters-optimization and lining improvement at NewCo Ferronikeli (Kosovo)”, The Thirteen International Ferroalloy Congress, Efficient Technologies in Ferroalloy Industry, Almaty, Kazakhstan, 2013.

Zhang, Lifeng, and Brian G. Thomas. “State of the Art in the Control of Inclusions during Steel Ingot Casting.” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B 37, no. 5 (October 2006): 733–761. doi:10.1007/s11663-006-0057-0.

Geerdes, Maarten, Renard Chaigneau, and Ivan Kurunov. Modern Blast Furnace Ironmaking: An Introduction (2009, New Edition 2015). IOS Press, 2015. doi: 10.3233/978-1-61499-499-2-i.

Ibrahimi I., “Desuphuring of ferronickel outside its furnace – a possibility for intensification and optimizations of the process of obtaing ferronickel”, The Thesis of Mastery, Faculty of Mining and Metallurgy in Mitrovica, UP Prishtina, 2009.

Refining Process Technology Card - NewCo Ferronickel; C-0835 – 0901, Glogoc/Kosovo, 2019.

Л. Ͷ. Πимeнов, B. Ͷ. Μихaҋӆов, “Πeppaбotka okͶcлehhыx hͶeлebыx pуд”, Mосвa “Metaӆургͷя”, 1987

Jiří Bažan, Ján Kret, “Iron and Steelmaking” Academic materials for the Economics and Management of Industrial Systems study programme at the Faculty of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, 2015.

Elkem a/s dhe Scandinavian Cancers, Progami investiv dhe propozimi i praktikës së desulfurimit në “Furrën elektroharkore për rafinim” Shkritorja e Ferronikelit Gllogovc (1986).

Stirling, D., “The Sulphur Problems: Cleaning Up Industrial Feed Stocks.” Chemistry Department. University of Glasgow, Royal Society of Chemistery, Cambridge, UK, 2000.

Karel Michalek, CSc., “Electrometallurgy and ferroalloys production”, Academic materials for the Metallurgy engineering study programme at the Faculty of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, 2014.

Z. Slovič, “Termodinamički pristup desulfuraciji pri vanpeč obradi kiseonič konvertorskog čelika”- Doktorska disertacija”, Beograd, 2013.

User Manual, “Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Simulation User Manual”, The University of Liverpool, 2006. Available online: (accessed on 14 March, 2020).

Kijac, J., and M. Borgon. "Desulphurization of Steel and Pig Iron." Metalurgija 47, no. 4 (2008). Available online: https://hrcak.srce.hr/file/41149 (accessed on 14 April, 2020).

Г. A. Cоколов, “Проиводство стали”, Metaӆургͷя, Mосвa 1982.

Marica Brankovic, Srdan Markovic: "Livene Legure Zelezo - Ugljenik" TMF: Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Beograd (1980). pp. 1-17.

Irving, W.R., “Continuous Casting of Steel”, The Institute of Materials, The University Press, Cambridge, London, 1993.

Ghosh, Ahindra, and Amit Chatterjee. “Ironmaking and Steelmaking: Theory and Praktice”. PHI Learning Private Limited, 2008, 472 p.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-2020-03091516


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Nurten Deva

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.