Evaluating the Friction Characteristics of Pavement Surface for Major Arterial Road

Diana Jumah Mohammad, Mohammed Qadir Ismael


The performance of the pavement in terms of vehicle safety and tire wear is affected by the friction behavior of the pavement. To highlight the main characteristics that affect the production of better friction resistance of the pavement surface in this work. The micro-texture and macro-texture of the asphalt surface of Baghdad Airport highway were studied using two methods: (sand patch method and the British pendulum test). The sand patch was examined by drawing sand grains of a specific volume, while the micro-texture was analyzed using a BPT under dry and wet surface conditions. All data obtained from the two examinations were analyzed and modelled statistically using SPSS 25 software. Results show that skid resistance of pavement surface increase with the increase of MTD, this increase may be due to the increase of coarse aggregate which lead to increase the roughness of the pavement surface, this increase ranged between (96 - 91%). MTD decreases with the increase of traffic flow due to the friction between the road surface and the vehicle tires leading to increase of smoothness of the road surface. This is mean that MTD is highly affected by the traffic flow and this effectiveness ranged between (84-97%). Skid resistance also is highly affected by the traffic flow with an effectiveness ranged between (81-94%) for both pavement conditions. According to the regression analysis for friction and other parameters, it can be concluded that surface friction values are highly affected by cumulative traffic (asphalt mix deterioration) over time.


Doi: 10.28991/cej-2021-03091775

Full Text: PDF


Pavement surface texture; Macrotexture; Microtexture; Skid Resistance; BPN; Sand Patch; MTD; SPSS.


Wang, Chao, Mohammed A. Quddus, and Stephen G. Ison. “The Effect of Traffic and Road Characteristics on Road Safety: A Review and Future Research Direction.” Safety Science 57 (2013): 264–75. doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2013.02.012.

Wu, Zhong, and Chris Abadie. “Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Asphalt Pavement Surface Friction Resistance.” Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering 12, no. 3 (2018): 372–81. doi:10.1007/s11709-017-0463-1.

Dewey, George R, Alan C Robords, Brian T Armour, and R Muethel. “Aggregate Wear and Pavement Friction.” Transportation Research Board, Annual Meeting CD-ROM, (2001): 17.

Hogervorst, D. “Quelques Propriétés Techniques Des Aggrégats Concassés Utilisables Pour Les Couches de Surface Des Chaussées.” Bulletin of the International Association of Engineering Geology - Bulletin de l’Association Internationale de Géologie de l’Ingénieur 10, no. 1 (1974): 59–64. doi:10.1007/BF02634635.

Rose J.G., Gallaway B.M., and Hankins K.D. “Macrotexture Measurements and Related Skid Resistance at Speeds from 20 to 60 Miles per Hour.” Highway Research Record, no. 34 (1970): 33–45.

Hall, J. W., Kelly L. Smith, Leslie Titus-Glover, James C. Wambold, Thomas J. Yager, and Zoltan Rado. "Guide for pavement friction." Final Report for NCHRP Project 1 (2009): 43. doi:10.17226/23038.

Ashby, J T. “Blended Aggregate Study.” Louisiana. Department of Highways. Research and Development Section, (1980). Available online: https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/21945. (accessed on May 2021).

Bloem, Delmar L. "Skid-Resistance--The Role of Aggregates and Other Factors." National Sand & Gravel Assoc Circulars (1971).

AASHTO. Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide: A Manual of Practice. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC. AASHTO, (2020).

Harish, H. S., N. P. Avinash, and M K Harikeerthan. “Field Evaluation of Longitudinal Skid Resistance on Pavement Surface in Bangalore City - A Case Study.” The International Journal of Engineering and Science (IJES) 2, no. 6 (2013): 10–18.

Čygas, Donatas, Alfredas Laurinavičius, Audrius Vaitkus, Zigmantas Perveneckas, and Algirdas Motiejunas. “Research of Asphalt Pavement Structures on Lithuanian Roads (I).” Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering 3, no. 2 (2008): 77–83. doi:10.3846/1822-427X.2008.3.77-83.

Greibe, Poul. “Braking Distance, Friction and Behaviour.” Trafitec 376, no. July (2007): 1–85. Available online: http://www.trafitec.dk/sites/default/files/publications/braking distance - friction and driver behaviour.pdf. (accessed on May 2021).

Noyce, David A., Hussain U. Bahia, Josué M. Yambó, and Guisk Kim. “Incorporating Road Safety into Pavement Management: Maximizing Asphalt Pavement Surface Friction for Road Safety Improvements.” Midwest Regional University Transportation Center, 2005, 110.

Henry, John J. Evaluation of Pavement Friction Characteristics. Vol. 291. Transportation Research Board, (2000).

Kogbara, Reginald B., Eyad A. Masad, Emad Kassem, A. Scarpas, and Kumar Anupam. “A State-of-the-Art Review of Parameters Influencing Measurement and Modeling of Skid Resistance of Asphalt Pavements.” Construction and Building Materials 114 (2016): 602–17. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.04.002.

Do, M. T., Z. Tang, M. Kane, and F. de Larrard. “Evolution of Road-Surface Skid-Resistance and Texture Due to Polishing.” Wear 266, no. 5–6 (2009): 574–77. doi:10.1016/j.wear.2008.04.060.

Schlottmann, Francisco, Anna F. Tyson, Bruce A. Cairns, Carlos Varela, and Anthony G. Charles. “Road Traffic Collisions in Malawi: Trends and Patterns of Mortality on Scene.” Malawi Medical Journal 29, no. 4 (2017): 301–5. doi:10.4314/mmj.v29i4.4.

Wijnen, Wim, Arno Schroten, and Maarten‘t Hoen. “The Cost of Road Crashes in the Netherlands the Cost of Road Crashes in the Netherlands an Assessment of Scenarios for Making,” 2017.

Journal, International, Transport Logistics, and Afolabi Oluwaseyi. “Road Traffic Crashes in Nigeria : Causes.” Transport & Logistics: The International Journal 17, no. 42 (2017): 40–49.

Huang, Helai, Hoong Chor Chin, and Md Mazharul Haque. “Severity of Driver Injury and Vehicle Damage in Traffic Crashes at Intersections: A Bayesian Hierarchical Analysis.” Accident Analysis and Prevention 40, no. 1 (2008): 45–54. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2007.04.002.

Staiano, Michael A. “Tire–Pavement Noise and Pavement Texture.” Journal of Transportation Engineering, Part B: Pavements 144, no. 3 (2018): 04018034. doi:10.1061/jpeodx.0000047.

Liu, Qingfan, and Ahmed Shalaby. “Relating Concrete Pavement Noise and Friction to Three-Dimensional Texture Parameters.” International Journal of Pavement Engineering 18, no. 5 (2017): 450–58. doi:10.1080/10298436.2015.1095897.

Persson, B. N.J. “Theory of Rubber Friction and Contact Mechanics.” Journal of Chemical Physics 115, no. 8 (2001): 3840–61. doi:10.1063/1.1388626.

Tomita, H. Tire-Pavement Friction Coefficients. Naval Civil: Engineering Lab Port Hueneme CA, (April 1, 1970). doi:10.21236/AD0705987.

Dunford, Alan. Road Surfaces. Characterisation of Areal Surface Texture. Vol. 9783642364587. University of Nottingham, 2013. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-36458-7_14.

Puzzo, Lorenzo, Giuseppe Loprencipe, Cristina Tozzo, and Antonio D’Andrea. “Three-Dimensional Survey Method of Pavement Texture Using Photographic Equipment.” Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation 111 (2017): 146–57. doi:10.1016/j.measurement.2017.07.040.

Kassem, Emad, Ahmed Awed, Eyad Masad, and Dallas Little. “Development of Predictive Model for Skid Loss of Asphalt Pavements.” Transportation Research Record 2372, no. 2372 (2013): 83–96. doi:10.3141/2372-10.

Al-Assi, Mohammad, Emad Kassem, and Richard Nielsen. “Using Close-Range Photogrammetry to Measure Pavement Texture Characteristics and Predict Pavement Friction.” Transportation Research Record 2674, no. 10 (2020): 794–805. doi:10.1177/0361198120936650.

Khasawneh, Mohammad, and Robert Y Liang. “Correlation Study between Locked Wheel Skid Trailer and Dynamic Friction Tester,” (2008).

Åström, Henrik, and Carl-Gustaf Wallman. “Friction Measurement Methods and the Correlation between Road Friction and Traffic Safety. A Literature Review.” Statens väg-och transportforskningsinstitut Vti, (2001).

Gillespie, Thomas D. “Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics.” Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics, (1992). doi:10.4271/r-114.

Sarsam, S I. “Modelling Asphalt Pavement Surface Texture Using Field Measurements.” In Proceedings, TRB–Conference, Developing a Research Agenda for Transportation Infrastructure Preservation and Renewal, Washington DC, November, 12–13. Washington DC, (2009).

Tests, Resistance. Standard Test Method for Measuring Surface Frictional Properties Using the British. Vol. 93. Conshohocken, PA, USA: ASTM International West, 2014. doi:10.1520/E0303-93R13.2.

Abdallah, Ahmed M, Ahmed E Abu Elmaaty, and Mohamed G Alzoghby. “Assessment of Surface Friction Characteristics for Egyptian Highways.” Assessment 15, no. 1 (2019): 41–54.

Plati, Christina, Maria Pomoni, and Konstantina Georgouli. “Quantification of Skid Resistance Seasonal Variation in Asphalt Pavements.” Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition) 7, no. 2 (2020): 237–48. doi:10.1016/j.jtte.2018.07.003.

Afonso, Marcia Lopes, Marisa Dinis-Almeida, and Cristina Sena Fael. “Characterization of the Skid Resistance and Mean Texture Depth in a Permeable Asphalt Pavement.” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 471, no. 2 (2019): 22029. doi:10.1088/1757-899X/471/2/022029.

PIARC World Road Association. "Report of the committee on surface characteristics." In Proceeding of XVIII World Road Congress, pp. 13-19. (1987): 13-19.

Tsubota, Takahiro, Celso Fernando, Toshio Yoshii, and Hirotoshi Shirayanagi. “Effect of Road Pavement Types and Ages on Traffic Accident Risks.” Transportation Research Procedia 34 (2018): 211–18. doi:10.1016/j.trpro.2018.11.034.

Roe, Peter, and S Hartshorme. The Polished Stone Value of Aggregates and In-Service Skidding Resistance. Transport Research Laboratory, (1998).

Flintsch, Gw, K McGhee, Edgar De León Izeppi, and S Najafi. “The Little Book of Tire Pavement Friction.” Pavement Surface Properties Consortium 1, no. September (2012): 1–22.

Mcquaid, Grainne, Phillip Millar, David Woodward, Shore Road, Northern Ireland, Shaun Friel, Sutton Coldfield, and West Midlands B. “Use of Close Range Photogrammetry To Assess the Micro-Texture Of.” International Journal of Pavements Conference, São Paulo, Brazil, (2013).

Shalaby A., and EL Gendy A. “Three-Dimensional Pavement Surface Macrotexture Measurements Using the Photometric Stereo Technique and Applications.” 6th International Symposium on Pavement Surface Characteristics SURF 2008, Portorož, (2008).

Descornet, Guy. “Criterion for Optimizing Surface Characteristics.” Transportation Research Record, no. 1215 (1989): 173–77.

Wambold, J, and J Henry. “International Piarc Experiment to Compare and Harmonize Texture and Skid Resistance Measurement.” Nordic Road and Transport Research, (1994).

Schlosser, Leonard H M. “Traffic Accidents and Road Surface Skidding Resistance.” Transportation Research Record 623 (1977): 11–20.

Sukor, Nur Sabahiah Abdul, Ari K.M. Tarigan, and Satoshi Fujii. “Analysis of Correlations between Psychological Factors and Self-Reported Behavior of Motorcyclists in Malaysia, Depending on Self-Reported Usage of Different Types of Motorcycle Facility.” Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 46 (2017): 509–23. doi:10.1016/j.trf.2016.09.032.

Abdul Manan, Muhammad Marizwan, Jen Sim Ho, Syed Tajul Malik Syed Tajul Arif, Muhammad Ruhaizat Abdul Ghani, and András Várhelyi. “Factors Associated with Motorcyclists’ Speed Behaviour on Malaysian Roads.” Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 50 (2017): 109–27. doi:10.1016/j.trf.2017.08.006.

McCarthy, Ross, Gerardo Flintsch, and Edgar de León Izeppi. “Impact of Skid Resistance on Dry and Wet Weather Crashes.” Journal of Transportation Engineering, Part B: Pavements 147, no. 3 (2021): 04021029. doi:10.1061/jpeodx.0000286.

E965 − 15. “Standard Test Method for Measuring Pavement Macrotexture Depth Using a Volumetric Technique1,” (2018).

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-2021-03091775


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Diana jumah mohammad, Mohammed Qadir Ismael

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.