Land Procurement for Public Interest Against Destroyed Land: Natural Events and Legal Certainty

Embun Sari, Muhammad Yamin, Hasim Purba, Rosnidar Sembiring


Based on a case study on the construction of the Semarang-Demak Toll Road, this study aims to investigate and investigate land acquisition for the public interest for land that has been destroyed as a result of natural events and its legal certainty. The research method used is socio-legal with primary data in identification, field measurements, and other supporting data. Semarang-Demak Toll Road property acquisition demonstrated tidal inundation on the north shore. Subsidence exacerbates Semarang's flooding. On flooded land, sea dikes and retention ponds prevent tidal floods. If just for transportation, the Semarang-Demak Toll Road can be built in flood-free areas or over the sea, like Bali's Mandra Toll Road. Land acquisition concerns delayed the Semarang-Demak Toll Road. Lack of land limitations has delayed land purchases. In the Semarang-Demak Toll Road land acquisition, destroyed land is not a problem under Indonesian law. 2021's Regulation 18 defines destroyed land. Destroyed land will drive people to take better care of their land and be more concerned about global warming or land subsidence. The state honors the landowner's emotional connection by paying for spiritual care.


Doi: 10.28991/CEJ-2022-08-06-06

Full Text: PDF


Land Destroyed; Natural Events; Land Acquisition Law; Toll Road; Agrarian Law; Legal Certainty.


Sari, E., Yamin, M., Purba, H., & Sembiring, R. (2021). Compensation for Damaged Land: Comparative Study between Indonesia and Japan. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Law, Economic, Governance, ICOLEG 2021, 29-30 June 2021, Semarang, Indonesia. doi:10.4108/eai.29-6-2021.2312610.

Rifai, A., Fathoni, M. I., & Hartiwiningsih. (2019). Legal Protection for Land Holders. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Indonesian Legal Studies (ICILS 2019). doi:10.2991/icils-19.2019.33.

Utami, W, S. (2021). Land Procurement in Indonesia and Several Countries from Time to Time. STPN Press, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. (In Indonesian). Available online: (accessed on May 2022).

Lu, H., Zhang, P., Hu, H., Xie, H., Yu, Z., & Chen, S. (2019). Effect of the grain-growing purpose and farm size on the ability of stable land property rights to encourage farmers to apply organic fertilizers. Journal of environmental management, 251, 109621. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109621.

Singer, J. (2008). Chapter 3. Property and Social Relations. Entitlement: The Paradoxes of Property, 95-139. New Haven: Yale University Press, New Haven, United States. doi:10.12987/9780300128543-005.

Waldron, J. (2004). Property and ownership. Summer 2021 Edition, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Archive. California, United States.

Demsetz, H. (1974). Toward a Theory of Property Rights. Classic Papers in Natural Resource Economics. Palgrave Macmillan, London, United Kingdom. doi:10.1057/9780230523210_9.

Butt, S., & Lindsey, T. (2008). Economic reform when the constitution matters: Indonesia’s constitutional court and article33. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 44(2), 239–262. doi:10.1080/00074910802169004.

Erwiningsih, W. (2009). Implementation of regulation of state control rights over land according to the 1945 constitution. Ph.D. Thesis, Universitas Islam Indonesia, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. (In Indonesian). Available online: (accessed on February 2022).

Wang, J., Gao, W., Xu, S., & Yu, L. (2012). Evaluation of the combined risk of sea level rise, land subsidence, and storm surges on the coastal areas of Shanghai, China. Climatic Change, 115(3–4), 537–558. doi:10.1007/s10584-012-0468-7.

Marfai, M. A., & King, L. (2007). Monitoring land subsidence in Semarang, Indonesia. Environmental Geology, 53(3), 651–659. doi:10.1007/s00254-007-0680-3.

Marfai, M. A., & King, L. (2008). Tidal inundation mapping under enhanced land subsidence in Semarang, Central Java Indonesia. Natural Hazards, 44(1), 93–109. doi:10.1007/s11069-007-9144-z.

Rodolfo, K. S., & Siringan, F. P. (2006). Global sea-level rise is recognised, but flooding from anthropogenic land subsidence is ignored around northern Manila Bay, Philippines. Disasters, 30(1), 118–139. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9523.2006.00310.x.

Belperio, A. P. (1993). Land subsidence and sea level rise in the port adelaide estuary: Implications for monitoring the greenhouse effect. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 40(4), 359–368. doi:10.1080/08120099308728087.

Taniguchi, M. (2011). Groundwater and subsurface environments: Human impacts in Asian coastal cities. Springer, Tokyo, Japan. doi:10.1007/978-4-431-53904-9.

Ghazal, A. I., El-Sheikh, M. Y., & Abd El-Rahim, A. H. (2021). Effects of Seawater on Setting Time and Compressive Strength of Concretes with Different Richness. Civil Engineering Journal, 7(5), 857-865. doi:10.28991/cej-2021-03091695.

Hamdani, R. S., Hadi, S. P., & Rudiarto, I. (2021). Progress or regress? A systematic review on two decades of monitoring and addressing land subsidence hazards in Semarang city. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(24). doi:10.3390/su132413755.

Wiryani, F., & Najih, M. (2021). The criticism of land procurement law to improve landowners welfare in Indonesia. Sriwijaya Law Review, 5(2), 175–191. doi:10.28946/slrev.Vol5.Iss2.1073.pp175-191.

Sari, E. (2021). Comparison of Land Law Systems: A Study on Compensation Arrangements and Reappraisal of Land Acquisition for Public Interest between Indonesia and Malaysia. International Journal of Criminology and Sociology, 10, 872–880. doi:10.6000/1929-4409.2021.10.103.

Sari, E., Yamin, M., Purba, H., & Sembiring, R. (2022). Legal Politics of Land Procurement against Abraded Land after the Enforcement of the Job Creation Act. Jurnal Ius Constituendum, 7(1), 50-67. (In Indonesian).

Menkel-Meadow, C. (2019). Uses and abuses of socio-legal studies. Routledge Handbook of Socio-Legal Theory and Methods (1st Ed.), 35-75, Routledge, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom. doi:10.4324/9780429952814-3.

Feenan, D. (2013). Exploring the ‘Socio’ of Socio-Legal Studies. Exploring the ‘Socio’ of Socio-Legal Studies. Palgrave Macmillan Socio-Legal Studies. Palgrave, London, United Kingdom. doi:10.1007/978-1-137-31463-5_1.

Wheeler, S., & Thomas, P. A. (2000). Socio-legal studies. Law (s) Futures (pp. 267-279). Hart Publishing, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom.

Wiratraman, H. P. (2019). The Challenges of Teaching Comparative Law and Socio-Legal Studies at Indonesia's Law Schools. Asian Journal of Comparative Law, 14(S1), S229-S244. doi:10.1017/ASJCL.2019.15.

Schiff, D. N. (1976). Socio‐Legal Theory: Social Structure and Law. The Modern Law Review, 39(3), 287–310. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2230.1976.tb01458.x.

Carlen, P. (1972). The sociology of law. Current Sociology, 20(3), 13–48. doi:10.1177/001139217202000302.

Kumar, S., & Moore, K. B. (2002). The Evolution of Global Positioning System (GPS) Technology. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 11(1), 59–80. doi:10.1023/A:1013999415003.

Shrestha, H. L. (2006). Using Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Participatory Mapping of Community Forest in NEPAL. The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 25(1), 1–11. doi:10.1002/j.1681-4835.2006.tb00166.x.

Webster, T. M., & Cardina, J. (1997). Accuracy of a global positioning system (GPS) for weed mapping. Weed Technology, 11(4), 782–786. doi:10.1017/s0890037x00043438.

Martono, D. B., Aditya, T., Subaryono, S., & Nugroho, P. (2021). The Legal Element of Fixing the Boundary for Indonesian Complete Cadastre. Land, 10(1), 49. doi:10.3390/land10010049.

Mimura, N. (2013). Sea-level rise caused by climate change and its implications for society. Proceedings of the Japan Academy Series B: Physical and Biological Sciences, 89(7), 281–301. doi:10.2183/pjab.89.281.

Werner, A. D., Bakker, M., Post, V. E. A., Vandenbohede, A., Lu, C., Ataie-Ashtiani, B., Simmons, C. T., & Barry, D. A. (2013). Seawater intrusion processes, investigation and management: Recent advances and future challenges. Advances in Water Resources, 51, 3–26. doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2012.03.004.

Langevin, C. D., & Zygnerski, M. (2013). Effect of sea-level rise on salt water intrusion near a coastal well field in Southeastern Florida. Groundwater, 51(5), 781–803. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6584.2012.01008.x.

Knowles, A. K., & Hillier, A. (2008). Placing history: how maps, spatial data, and GIS are changing historical scholarship. ESRI Press, California, United States.

Enemark, S., Bell, K. C., Lemmen, C., & McLaren, R. (2014). Fit-for-purpose land administration. International Federation of Surveyors, Kopenhagen, Denmark.

Huang, B., Zhao, B., & Song, Y. (2018). Urban land-use mapping using a deep convolutional neural network with high spatial resolution multispectral remote sensing imagery. Remote Sensing of Environment, 214, 73–86. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2018.04.050.

Appeaning Addo, K., Jayson-Quashigah, P. N., Codjoe, S. N. A., & Martey, F. (2018). Drone as a tool for coastal flood monitoring in the Volta Delta, Ghana. Geoenvironmental Disasters, 5(1). doi:10.1186/s40677-018-0108-2.

Clark, D. G., Ford, J. D., & Tabish, T. (2018). What role can unmanned aerial vehicles play in emergency response in the Arctic: A case study from Canada. PLoS ONE, 13(12). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0205299.

Zanutta, A., Lambertini, A., & Vittuari, L. (2020). UAV photogrammetry and ground surveys as a mapping tool for quickly monitoring shoreline and beach changes. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 8(1). doi:10.3390/JMSE8010052.

Doughty, C. L., & Cavanaugh, K. C. (2019). Mapping coastal wetland biomass from high resolution unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery. Remote Sensing, 11(5). doi:10.3390/rs11050540.

Casella, E., Drechsel, J., Winter, C., Benninghoff, M., & Rovere, A. (2020). Accuracy of sand beach topography surveying by drones and photogrammetry. Geo-Marine Letters, 40(2), 255–268. doi:10.1007/s00367-020-00638-8.

Scarelli, F. M., Sistilli, F., Fabbri, S., Cantelli, L., Barboza, E. G., & Gabbianelli, G. (2017). Seasonal dune and beach monitoring using photogrammetry from UAV surveys to apply in the ICZM on the Ravenna coast (Emilia-Romagna, Italy). Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment, 7, 27–39. doi:10.1016/j.rsase.2017.06.003.

Hiep, N. T., Tanaka, H., & Tinh, N. X. (2021). Morphology recovery of the Abukuma River mouth after the 2011 Tohoku tsunami under the interaction between sand spit and sand terrace. Coastal Engineering Journal, 63(4), 467–484. doi:10.1080/21664250.2021.1937902.

Harwitasari, D., & van Ast, J. A. (2011). Climate change adaptation in practice: People’s responses to tidal flooding in Semarang, Indonesia. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 4(3), 216–233. doi:10.1111/j.1753-318X.2011.01104.x.

Bott, L. M., Schöne, T., Illigner, J., Haghshenas Haghighi, M., Gisevius, K., & Braun, B. (2021). Land subsidence in Jakarta and Semarang Bay – The relationship between physical processes, risk perception, and household adaptation. Ocean and Coastal Management, 211(105775). doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2021.105775.

Kirezci, E., Young, I. R., Ranasinghe, R., Muis, S., Nicholls, R. J., Lincke, D., & Hinkel, J. (2020). Projections of global-scale extreme sea levels and resulting episodic coastal flooding over the 21st Century. Scientific Reports, 10(1). doi:10.1038/s41598-020-67736-6.

Kulp, S. A., & Strauss, B. H. (2019). New elevation data triple estimates of global vulnerability to sea-level rise and coastal flooding. Nature Communications, 10(1). doi:10.1038/s41467-019-12808-z.

Esteban, M., Takagi, H., Jamero, L., Chadwick, C., Avelino, J. E., Mikami, T., … Shibayama, T. (2020). Adaptation to sea level rise: Learning from present examples of land subsidence. Ocean & Coastal Management, 189, 104852. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2019.104852.

Abidin, H. Z., Andreas, H., Gumilar, I., Sidiq, T. P., & Fukuda, Y. (2013). Land subsidence in coastal city of Semarang (Indonesia): Characteristics, impacts and causes. Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk, 4(3), 226–240. doi:10.1080/19475705.2012.692336.

Nurhidayah, L. (2021). Sea-Level Rise (SLR) and Its Implication on Human Security and Human Rights in Indonesia: A Legal Analysis. Climate Change Research, Policy and Actions in Indonesia. Springer Climate. Springer, Cham, Switzerland. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-55536-8_3.

Buchori, I., Pramitasari, A., Sugiri, A., Maryono, M., Basuki, Y., & Sejati, A. W. (2018). Adaptation to coastal flooding and inundation: Mitigations and migration pattern in Semarang City, Indonesia. Ocean and Coastal Management, 163, 445–455. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.07.017.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/CEJ-2022-08-06-06


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Embun Sari

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.