Three-Dimensional Simulation of Flow Field in Morning Glory Spillway to Determine Flow Regimes (Case Study: Haraz Dam)
Morning-glory spillways are usually used in dams constructed in narrow valleys or those on steeply sloped supports. Furthermore, one can adopt this type of spillway in cases where guiding and diversion tunnels of adequate diameter are available. One of positive characteristics of these spillways is that, their maximum capacity can be approached at relatively low head. This characteristic can be seen as an advantage in cases wherein maximum outflow from the spillway shall be limited. On the other hand, should water head on top of the spillway exceeds the project baseline head, changes in output discharge will be negligible. Morning-glory spillways are commonly used in large dam construction projects across Iran (e.g. Sefid-Rood Dam, Alborz Dam, Haraz Dam, etc.). Given that spillway is one of the most important axillary structures for dams, accurate and realistic characterization of the hydraulic conditions affecting them seems to be necessary. On this basis, the present research is aimed at accurate determination of flow behavior and discharge coefficient of morning-glory spillways from the flow inlet down to horizontal tunnel of the morning-glory spillway of Haraz Dam. For this purpose, the most significant hydraulic parameters (including flow depth, flow velocity, flow pressure at different sections of the spillway, and rate of outflow at spillway) will be determined. In this study, an effort was made to use the numerical model of Flow3D to numerically model three-dimensional flow based on physical model and actual data from one of the largest and most important morning-glory spillways for calibration and verification purposes, and determine accuracy of the numerical modeling and associated error with simulating the numerical model. Results of this study show that, the flow at morning-glory spillways is controlled in either of three modes: flow control at crest, orifice control, and pipe control.
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